Jenseits von Gut und Böse

By Friedrich Nietzsche

Page 119

auch an uns Europäern von Heute zuerst die
Selbstverkleinerung herauserkennen würde, - damit allein schon giengen
wir ihm "wider den Geschmack". -


Was ist zuletzt die Gemeinheit? - Worte sind Tonzeichen für Begriffe;
Begriffe aber sind mehr oder weniger bestimmte Bildzeichen für
oft wiederkehrende und zusammen kommende Empfindungen, für
Empfindungs-Gruppen. Es genügt noch nicht, um sich einander zu
verstehen, dass man die selben Worte gebraucht: man muss die selben
Worte auch für die selbe Gattung innerer Erlebnisse gebrauchen, man
muss zuletzt seine Erfahrung mit einander gemein haben. Deshalb
verstehen sich die Menschen Eines Volkes besser unter einander, als
Zugehörige verschiedener Völker, selbst wenn sie sich der gleichen
Sprache bedienen; oder vielmehr, wenn Menschen lange unter ähnlichen
Bedingungen (des Klima's, des Bodens, der Gefahr, der Bedürfnisse, der
Arbeit) zusammen gelebt haben, so entsteht daraus Etwas, das "sich
versteht", ein Volk. In allen Seelen hat eine gleiche Anzahl oft
wiederkehrender Erlebnisse die Oberhand gewonnen über seltner
kommende: auf sie hin versteht man sich, schnell und immer
schneller - die Geschichte der Sprache ist die Geschichte eines
Abkürzungs-Prozesses -; auf dies schnelle Verstehen hin verbindet man
sich, enger und immer enger. Je grösser die Gefährlichkeit, um so
grösser ist das Bedürfniss, schnell und leicht über Das, was noth
thut, übereinzukommen; sich in der Gefahr nicht misszuverstehn, das
ist es, was die Menschen zum Verkehre schlechterdings nicht entbehren
können. Noch bei jeder Freundschaft oder Liebschaft macht man diese
Probe: Nichts derart hat Dauer, sobald man dahinter kommt, dass
Einer von Beiden bei gleichen Worten anders fühlt, meint, wittert,
wünscht, fürchtet, als der Andere. (Die Furcht vor dem "ewigen
Missverständniss": das ist jener wohlwollende Genius, der Personen
verschiedenen Geschlechts so oft von übereilten Verbindungen
abhält, zu denen Sinne und Herz rathen - und nicht irgend ein
Schopenhauerischer "Genius der Gattung" -!) Welche Gruppen von
Empfindungen innerhalb einer Seele am schnellsten wach werden, das
Wort ergreifen, den Befehl geben, das entscheidet über die gesammte
Rangordnung ihrer Werthe, das bestimmt zuletzt ihre Gütertafel. Die
Werthschätzungen eines Menschen verrathen etwas vom Aufbau seiner
Seele, und worin sie ihre Lebensbedingungen, ihre eigentliche Noth
sieht. Gesetzt nun, dass die Noth von jeher nur solche Menschen
einander angenähert hat, welche mit ähnlichen Zeichen ähnliche
Bedürfnisse, ähnliche Erlebnisse andeuten konnten, so ergiebt sich
im Ganzen, dass die leichte Mittheilbarkeit der Noth, dass heisst im
letzten Grunde das Erleben von nur durchschnittlichen und gemeinen
Erlebnissen, unter allen Gewalten, welche über den Menschen bisher
verfügt haben, die gewaltigste gewesen sein muss. Die ähnlicheren,
die gewöhnlicheren Menschen waren und sind immer im Vortheile, die
Ausgesuchteren, Feineren, Seltsameren, schwerer Verständlichen bleiben
leicht allein, unterliegen, bei ihrer Vereinzelung, den Unfällen und
pflanzen sich selten fort. Man muss ungeheure Gegenkräfte anrufen,
um diesen natürlichen, allzunatürlichen progressus

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Text Comparison with Beyond Good and Evil

Page 4
The falseness of an opinion is not for us any objection to it: it is here, perhaps, that our new language sounds most strangely.
Page 6
There is a point in every philosophy at which the "conviction" of the philosopher appears on the scene; or, to put it in the words of an ancient mystery: Adventavit asinus, Pulcher et fortissimus.
Page 11
Page 15
"Freedom of Will"--that is the expression for the complex state of delight of the person exercising volition, who commands and at the same time identifies himself with the executor of the order--who, as such, enjoys also the triumph over obstacles, but thinks within himself that it was really his own will that overcame them.
Page 16
It is highly probable that philosophers within the domain of the Ural-Altaic languages (where the conception of the subject is least developed) look otherwise "into the world," and will be found on paths of thought different from those of the Indo-Germans and Mussulmans, the spell of certain grammatical functions is ultimately also the spell of PHYSIOLOGICAL valuations and racial conditions.
Page 19
Here and there we understand it, and laugh at the way in which precisely the best knowledge seeks most to retain us in this SIMPLIFIED, thoroughly artificial, suitably imagined, and suitably falsified world: at the way in which, whether it will or not, it loves error, because, as living itself, it loves life! 25.
Page 31
It must be contrary to their pride, and also contrary to their taste, that their truth should still be.
Page 32
One must renounce the bad taste of wishing to agree with many people.
Page 41
Among those indifferent persons may be reckoned nowadays the majority of German Protestants of the middle classes, especially in the great laborious centres of trade and commerce; also the majority of laborious scholars, and the entire University personnel (with the exception of the theologians, whose existence and possibility there always.
Page 54
Page 61
; or, finally, even the complaisant and wanton surrender to the emotions, as has been taught by Hafis and Goethe, the bold letting-go of the reins, the spiritual and corporeal licentia morum in the exceptional cases of wise old codgers and drunkards, with whom it "no longer has much danger.
Page 66
That its TEMPO, however, is much too slow and sleepy for the more impatient ones, for those who are sick and distracted by the herding-instinct, is indicated by the increasingly furious howling, and always less disguised teeth-gnashing of the anarchist dogs, who are now roving through the highways of European culture.
Page 67
To teach man the future of humanity as his WILL, as depending on human will, and to make preparation for vast hazardous enterprises and collective attempts in rearing and educating, in order thereby to put an end to the frightful rule of folly and chance which has hitherto gone by the name of "history" (the folly of the "greatest number" is only its last form)--for that purpose a new type of philosopher and commander will some time or other be needed, at the very idea of which everything that has existed in the way of occult, terrible, and benevolent beings might look pale and dwarfed.
Page 71
To both, of course, to the scholar and to the old maid, one concedes respectability, as if by way of indemnification--in these cases one emphasizes the respectability--and yet, in the compulsion of this concession, one has the same admixture of vexation.
Page 77
Meanwhile, however, there grew up in his son that new kind of harder and more dangerous skepticism--who knows TO WHAT EXTENT it was encouraged just by his father's hatred and the icy melancholy of a will condemned to solitude?--the skepticism of daring manliness, which is closely related to the genius for war and conquest, and made its first entrance into Germany in the person of the great Frederick.
Page 83
with our most ardent requirements: well, then, let us look for them in our labyrinths!--where, as we know, so many things lose themselves, so many things get quite lost! And is there anything finer than to SEARCH for one's own virtues? Is it not almost to BELIEVE in one's own virtues? But this "believing in one's own virtues"--is it not practically the same as what was formerly called one's "good conscience," that long, respectable pigtail of an idea, which our grandfathers used to hang behind their heads, and often enough also behind their understandings? It seems, therefore, that however little we may imagine ourselves to be old-fashioned and grandfatherly respectable in other respects, in one thing we are nevertheless the worthy grandchildren of our grandfathers, we last Europeans with good consciences: we also still wear their pigtail.
Page 96
Finally, I ask the question: Did a woman herself ever acknowledge profundity in a woman's mind, or justice in a woman's heart? And is it not true that on the whole "woman" has hitherto been most despised by woman herself, and not at all by us?--We men desire that woman should not continue to compromise herself by enlightening us; just as it was man's care and the consideration for woman, when the church decreed: mulier taceat in ecclesia.
Page 117
ambitious and insatiable, without equilibrium and enjoyment; all of them finally shattering and sinking down at the Christian cross (and with right and reason, for who of them would have been sufficiently profound and sufficiently original for an ANTI-CHRISTIAN philosophy?);--on the whole, a boldly daring, splendidly overbearing, high-flying, and aloft-up-dragging class of higher men, who had first to teach their century--and it is the century of the MASSES--the conception "higher man.
Page 123
He will say, for instance: "I may be mistaken about my value, and on the other hand may nevertheless demand that my value should be acknowledged by others precisely as I rate it:--that, however, is not vanity (but self-conceit, or, in most cases, that which is called 'humility,' and also 'modesty').
Page 134
--"Will people believe it of me? But I insist that they believe it of me: I have always thought very unsatisfactorily of myself and about myself, only in very rare cases, only compulsorily, always without delight in 'the subject,' ready to digress from 'myself,' and always without faith in the result, owing to an unconquerable distrust of the POSSIBILITY of self-knowledge, which has led me so far as to feel a CONTRADICTIO IN ADJECTO even in the idea of 'direct knowledge' which theorists allow themselves:--this matter of fact is almost the most certain thing I know about myself.