Jenseits von Gut und Böse

By Friedrich Nietzsche

Page 113

beinahe die einzigen Mittel, den
Druck des Daseins auszuhalten. Die Sklaven-Moral ist wesentlich
Nützlichkeits-Moral. Hier ist der Herd für die Entstehung jenes
berühmten Gegensatzes "gut" und "böse": - in's Böse wird die Macht und
Gefährlichkeit hinein empfunden, eine gewisse Furchtbarkeit, Feinheit
und Stärke, welche die Verachtung nicht aufkommen lässt. Nach der
Sklaven-Moral erregt also der "Böse" Furcht; nach der Herren Moral ist
es gerade der "Gute", der Furcht erregt und erregen will, während der
"schlechte" Mensch als der verächtliche empfunden wird. Der Gegensatz
kommt auf seine Spitze, wenn sich, gemäss der Sklavenmoral-Consequenz,
zuletzt nun auch an den "Guten" dieser Moral ein Hauch von
Geringschätzung hängt - sie mag leicht und wohlwollend sein -, weil
der Gute innerhalb der Sklaven-Denkweise jedenfalls der ungefährliche
Mensch sein muss: er ist gutmüthig, leicht zu betrügen, ein bischen
dumm vielleicht, un bonhomme. überall, wo die Sklaven-Moral zum
Übergewicht kommt, zeigt die Sprache eine Neigung, die Worte "gut"
und "dumm" einander anzunähern. - Ein letzter Grundunterschied: das
Verlangen nach Freiheit, der Instinkt für das Glück und die Feinheiten
des Freiheits-Gefühls gehört ebenso nothwendig zur Sklaven-Moral und
-Moralität, als die Kunst und Schwärmerei in der Ehrfurcht, in der
Hingebung das regelmässige Symptom einer aristokratischen Denk- und
Werthungsweise ist. - Hieraus lässt sich ohne Weiteres verstehn,
warum die Liebe als Passion - es ist unsre europäische Spezialität -
schlechterdings vornehmer Abkunft sein muss: bekanntlich gehört ihre
Erfindung den provençalischen Ritter-Dichtern zu, jenen prachtvollen
erfinderischen Menschen des "gai saber", denen Europa so Vieles und
beinahe sich selbst verdankt. -


261.

Zu den Dingen, welche einem vornehmen Menschen vielleicht am
schwersten zu begreifen sind, gehört die Eitelkeit: er wird versucht
sein, sie noch dort zu leugnen, wo eine andre Art Mensch sie mit
beiden Händen zu fassen meint. Das Problem ist für ihn, sich Wesen
vorzustellen, die eine gute Meinung über sich zu erwecken suchen,
welche sie selbst von sich nicht haben - und also auch nicht
"verdienen" -, und die doch hinterdrein an diese gute Meinung
selber glauben. Das erscheint ihm zur Hälfte so geschmacklos
und unehrerbietig vor sich selbst, zur andren Hälfte so
barock-unvernünftig, dass er die Eitelkeit gern als Ausnahme
fassen möchte und sie in den meisten Fällen, wo man von ihr redet,
anzweifelt. Er wird zum Beispiel sagen: "ich kann mich über meinen
Werth irren und andererseits doch verlangen, dass mein Werth gerade
so, wie ich ihn ansetze, auch von Andern anerkannt werde, - aber das
ist keine Eitelkeit (sondern Dünkel oder, in den häufigeren Fällen,
Das, was `Demuth`, auch `Bescheidenheit` genannt wird)." Oder auch:
"ich kann mich aus vielen Gründen über die gute Meinung Anderer
freuen, vielleicht weil ich sie ehre und liebe und mich an jeder ihrer
Freuden erfreue, vielleicht

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Text Comparison with On the Future of our Educational Institutions

Page 0
generously made available by The Internet Archive) * * * * * +-----------------------------------------------------------+ | Transcriber's Note: | | | | Inconsistent hyphenation in the original document has | | been preserved.
Page 4
On the other hand, I know full well under what distinguished auspices I have to deliver these lectures--namely, in a city which is striving to educate and enlighten its inhabitants on a scale so magnificently out of proportion to its size, that it must put all larger cities to shame.
Page 11
Our solemn rite bound us only in so far as the latest hours of the day were concerned, and we therefore determined to employ the last moments of clear daylight by giving ourselves up to one of our many hobbies.
Page 12
" To this rough, though admittedly just, flood of eloquence, we replied with some irritation, interrupting each other continually in so doing: "In.
Page 18
I ask myself to what purpose have I lived as a philosopher, if, possessed as you are of no mean intelligence and a genuine thirst for knowledge, all the years you have spent in my company have left no deeper impression upon you.
Page 23
That, however, which, in the case of certain religions, is a perfectly justifiable aim, both in regard to their origin and their history, can only amount to self-immolation when transferred to the realm of science.
Page 40
Our solitary thinkers were perturbed by two facts: by clearly perceiving on the one hand that what might rightly be called "classical education" was now only a far-off ideal, a castle in the air, which could not possibly be built as a reality on the foundations of our present educational system, and that, on the other hand, what was now, with customary and unopposed euphemism, pointed to as "classical education" could only claim the value of a pretentious illusion, the best effect of which was that the expression "classical education" still lived on and had not yet lost its pathetic sound.
Page 44
It is only in the simile of the mother that we can grasp the meaning and the responsibility of the true education of the people in respect to genius: its real origin is not to be found in such education; it has, so to speak, only a metaphysical source, a metaphysical home.
Page 45
has convinced himself of the singularity and inaccessibility of Hellenic antiquity, and has warded off this conviction after an exhausting struggle--every such man knows that the door leading to this enlightenment will never remain open to all comers; and he deems it absurd, yea disgraceful, to use the Greeks as he would any other tool he employs when following his profession or earning his living, shamelessly fumbling with coarse hands amidst the relics of these holy men.
Page 47
A sudden thought strikes him: why is he a skilled philologist at all! Why did these authors write Latin and Greek! And with a light heart he immediately begins to etymologise with Homer, calling Lithuanian or Ecclesiastical Slavonic, or, above all, the sacred Sanskrit, to his assistance: as if Greek lessons were merely the excuse for a general introduction to the study of languages, and as if Homer were lacking in only one respect, namely, not being written in pre-Indogermanic.
Page 52
For what, after all, do we know about the difficult task of governing men, _i.
Page 53
e.
Page 57
culture! To say the least, the secondary schools cannot be reproached with this; for they have up to the present propitiously and honourably followed up tendencies of a lower order, but one nevertheless highly necessary.
Page 58
We were thus disposed to remember with gratitude the institution which we had at one time thought out for ourselves at that very spot in order, as I have already mentioned, that we might reciprocally encourage and watch over one another's educational impulses.
Page 66
When the two paths happen to cross, however, you will be roughly handled and thrust aside, or else shunned and isolated.
Page 70
We had scarcely reached our side of the river when a broad and fiery, yet dull and uncertain light shot up, which plainly came from the opposite side of the Rhine.
Page 73
even seems to me," I said, "that everything for which you have justly blamed the public school is only a necessary means employed to imbue the youthful student with some kind of independence, or at all events with the belief that there is such a thing.
Page 79
He who surveys the greatest supporters and friends of that pseudo-culture of the present time, which I so greatly detest, will only too frequently find among them such degenerate and shipwrecked men of culture, driven by inward despair to violent enmity against culture, when, in a moment of desperation, there was no one at hand to show them how to attain it.
Page 80
"A tragic, earnest, and instructive attempt was made in the present century to destroy the cloud I have last referred to, and also to turn the people's looks in the direction of the high welkin of the German spirit.
Page 85
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