Human, All-Too-Human: A Book for Free Spirits, Part 1 Complete Works, Volume Six

By Friedrich Nietzsche

Page 37

shown himself powerless, and
would have been reckoned as such ever after. Therefore every society of
the good, which originally meant the powerful, places gratitude amongst
the first duties.--Swift propounded the maxim that men were grateful in
the same proportion as they were revengeful.


45.

THE TWOFOLD EARLY HISTORY OF GOOD AND EVIL.--The conception of good
and evil has a twofold early history, namely, _once_ in the soul of
the ruling tribes and castes. Whoever has the power of returning
good for good, evil for evil, and really practises requital, and who
is, therefore, grateful and revengeful, is called good; whoever is
powerless, and unable to requite, is reckoned as bad. As a good man one
is reckoned among the "good," a community which has common feelings
because the single individuals are bound to one another by the sense
of requital. As a bad man one belongs to the "bad," to a party of
subordinate, powerless people who have no common feeling. The good are
a caste, the bad are a mass like dust. Good and bad have for a long
time meant the same thing as noble and base, master and slave. On the
other hand, the enemy is not looked upon as evil, he can requite. In
Homer the Trojan and the Greek are both good. It is not the one who
injures us, but the one who is despicable, who is called bad. Good is
inherited in the community of the good; it is impossible that a bad man
could spring from such good soil. If, nevertheless, one of the good
ones does something which is unworthy of the good, refuge is sought in
excuses; the guilt is thrown upon a god, for instance; it is said that
he has struck the good man with blindness and madness.--

_Then_ in the soul of the oppressed and powerless. Here every _other_
man is looked upon as hostile, inconsiderate, rapacious, cruel,
cunning, be he noble or base; evil is the distinguishing word for man,
even for every conceivable living creature, _e.g._ for a god; human,
divine, is the same thing as devilish, evil. The signs of goodness,
helpfulness, pity, are looked upon with fear as spite, the prelude to
a terrible result, stupefaction and out-witting,--in short, as refined
malice. With such a disposition in the individual a community could
hardly exist, or at most it could exist only in its crudest form, so
that in all places where this conception of good and evil obtains,
the downfall of the single individuals, of their tribes and races, is
at hand.--Our present civilisation has grown up on the

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Text Comparison with The Will to Power, Book III and IV An Attempted Transvaluation of all Values

Page 20
.
Page 22
In this way we start out with a belief in the "true nature" of things (we regard phenomena as real).
Page 26
(because it leaves few motives over).
Page 37
553.
Page 50
Let us reflect; let us think backwards; let us follow the narrow and broad highway.
Page 56
This same repugnance takes hold of me when I contemplate _myself;_ I should like to form some kind of representation of my inner world for myself by means of a _scheme,_ and thus overcome intellectual confusion.
Page 79
The value of all _valuing.
Page 95
That is why it is a piece of childish simplicity to set up happiness, or intellectuality, or morality, or any other individual sphere of consciousness, as the highest value: and maybe to justify "the world" with it.
Page 101
A people ought at least, with quite as much justification, to be able to regard its lust of power, either in arms, commerce, trade, or colonisation, as.
Page 105
_"Punishment and reward.
Page 112
The botched and the bungled, the decadents of all kinds, are revolted at themselves, and require sacrifices in order that they may not slake their thirst for destruction upon themselves (which might, indeed, be the most reasonable procedure).
Page 126
Germany, though very rich in clever and well-informed scholars, has for some time been so excessively poor in great souls and in mighty minds, that it almost seems to have forgotten what a great soul or a mighty mind is; and to-day mediocre and even ill-constituted men place themselves in the market square without the suggestion of a conscience-prick or a sign of embarrassment, and declare themselves great men, reformers, etc.
Page 139
_ it corresponds with what we think of ourselves.
Page 144
What good can come of all extension in the means of expression, when that which is expressed, art itself, has lost all its law and order? The picturesque pomp and power of tones, the symbolism of sound, rhythm, the colour effects of harmony and discord, the suggestive significance of music, the whole sensuality of this art which Wagner made prevail--it is all this that Wagner derived, developed, and drew out of music.
Page 155
It is necessary for _higher_ men to declare war upon the masses! In all directions mediocre people are joining hands in order to make themselves masters.
Page 178
.
Page 189
That such ideas may be modern leads one to think very poorly of modernity.
Page 197
New species.
Page 200
_Concerning the misunderstanding of "cheerfulness.
Page 211
The passions which _say yea.