Human, All-Too-Human: A Book for Free Spirits, Part 1 Complete Works, Volume Six

By Friedrich Nietzsche

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to imagine a man of eighty thousand
years, one would have in him an absolutely changeable character, so
that a number of different individuals would gradually develop out
of him. The shortness of human life misleads us into forming many
erroneous ideas about the qualities of man.


42.

THE ORDER OF POSSESSIONS AND MORALITY.--The once-accepted hierarchy
of possessions, according as this or the other is coveted by a lower,
higher, or highest egoism, now decides what is moral or immoral. To
prefer a lesser good (for instance, the gratification of the senses)
to a more highly valued good (for instance, health) is accounted
immoral, and also to prefer luxury to liberty. The hierarchy of
possessions, however, is not fixed and equal at all times; if any one
prefers vengeance to justice he is moral according to the standard of
an earlier civilisation, but immoral according to the present one. To
be "immoral," therefore, denotes that an individual has not felt, or
not felt sufficiently strongly, the higher, finer, spiritual motives
which have come in with a new culture; it marks one who has remained
behind, but only according to the difference of degrees. The order of
possessions itself is _not_ raised and lowered according to a moral
point of view; but each time that it is fixed it supplies the decision
as to whether an action is moral or immoral.


43.

CRUEL PEOPLE AS THOSE WHO HAVE REMAINED BEHIND.--People who are
cruel nowadays must be accounted for by us as the grades of earlier
civilisations which have survived; here are exposed those deeper
formations in the mountain of humanity which usually remain concealed.
They are backward people whose brains, through all manner of accidents
in the course of inheritance, have not been developed in so delicate
and manifold a way. They show us what we all _were_ and horrify us, but
they themselves are as little responsible as is a block of granite for
being granite. There must, too, be grooves and twists in our brains
which answer to that condition of mind, as in the form of certain
human organs there are supposed to be traces of a fish-state. But these
grooves and twists are no longer the bed through which the stream of
our sensation flows.


44.

GRATITUDE AND REVENGE.--The reason why the powerful man is grateful
is this: his benefactor, through the benefit he confers, has mistaken
and intruded into the sphere of the powerful man,--now the latter,
in return, penetrates into the sphere of the benefactor by the act of
gratitude. It is a milder form of revenge. Without the satisfaction of
gratitude, the powerful man would have

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Text Comparison with On the Future of our Educational Institutions

Page 1
I shall be content if only I can ascend a tolerably lofty mountain, from the summit of which, after having recovered my breath, I may obtain a general survey of the ground; for I shall never be able, in this book, to satisfy the votaries of tabulated rules.
Page 7
In the face of these two antagonistic tendencies, we could but give ourselves up to despair, did we not see the possibility of promoting the cause of two other contending factors which are fortunately as completely German as they are rich in promises for the future; I refer to the present movement towards _limiting and concentrating_ education as the antithesis of the first of the forces above mentioned, and that other movement towards the _strengthening and the independence_ of education as the antithesis of the second force.
Page 8
It therefore seemed to me to be in the highest degree important that a record of this conversation should be made, so that others might be incited to form a judgment concerning the striking views and conclusions it contains: and, to this end, I had special grounds for believing that I should do well to avail myself of the opportunity afforded by this course of lectures.
Page 9
We thus hoped, by means of mutual correction, to be able both to stimulate and to chasten our creative impulses and, as a matter of fact, the success of the scheme was such that we have both always felt a sort of respectful attachment for the hour and the place at which it first took shape in our minds.
Page 13
" This reply, which was certainly not polite, made a bad impression upon the old man.
Page 14
It was to be a silent.
Page 16
" Turning suddenly in our direction, he said: "_Were_ you meditating? Just tell me about it as we proceed in the direction of our common trysting-place.
Page 20
The purpose of education, according to this scheme, would be to rear the most 'current' men possible,--'current' being used here in the sense in which it is applied to the coins of the realm.
Page 24
I am too painfully conscious of the disastrous errors and abuses to which you were wont to call my attention; and yet I know that I am far from possessing the requisite strength to meet with success, however valiantly I might struggle to shatter the bulwarks of this would-be culture.
Page 25
" "My dear master," said the younger man, "I wish you could point to one single example which would assist me in seeing the soundness of the hopes which you so heartily raise in.
Page 34
It can be proved that the only value that these men have in a real educational establishment has not been mentioned, much less generally recognised for half a century: their value as preparatory leaders and mystogogues of classical culture, guided by whose hands alone can the correct road leading to antiquity be found.
Page 42
But it is just at this point that one should learn to hear aright: it is here, without being disconcerted by the thundering noise of the education-mongers, that we must confront those who talk so tirelessly about the educational necessities of their time.
Page 43
We well know that a just posterity judges the collective intellectual state of a time only by those few great and lonely figures of the period, and gives its decision in accordance with the manner in which they are recognised, encouraged, and honoured, or, on the other hand, in which they are snubbed, elbowed aside, and kept down.
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.
Page 56
I am quite prepared to say further that those youths who pass through the better class of secondary schools are well entitled to make the claims put forward by the fully-fledged public school boy; and the time is certainly not far distant when such pupils will be everywhere freely admitted to the universities and positions under the government, which has hitherto been the case only with scholars from the public schools--of our present public schools, be it noted![7] I cannot, however, refrain from adding the melancholy reflection: if it be true that secondary and public schools are, on the whole, working so heartily in common towards the same ends, and differ from each other only in such a slight degree, that they may take equal rank before the tribunal of the State, then we completely lack another kind of educational institutions: those for the development of.
Page 68
But your Platonic horse pleases me, and on its account you shall be forgiven.
Page 69
"That's his signal," exclaimed the philosopher, "so my friend is really coming, and I haven't waited for nothing, after all.
Page 79
For these latter show by their base smugness and their narrow professional limitations that this is the right element for them: against which there is nothing to be said.
Page 81
He suddenly saw, with horror-struck, wide-open eyes, the non-German barbarism, hiding itself in the guise of all kinds of scholasticism; he suddenly discovered that his own leaderless comrades were abandoned to a repulsive kind of youthful intoxication.
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