Human, All-Too-Human: A Book for Free Spirits, Part 1 Complete Works, Volume Six

By Friedrich Nietzsche

Page 35

but with regard to nature;
liberty, therefore, to _be_ thus or otherwise, not to _act_ thus or
otherwise. From the _esse,_ the sphere of freedom and responsibility,
there results, in his opinion, the _operari,_ the sphere of strict
causality, necessity, and irresponsibility. This ill humour is
apparently directed to the _operari,_--in so far it is erroneous,--but
in reality it is directed to the _esse,_ which is the deed of a free
will, the fundamental cause of the existence of an individual, man
becomes that which he _wishes_ to be, his will is anterior to his
existence. Here the mistaken conclusion is drawn that from the fact
of the ill humour, the justification, the reasonable _admissableness_
of this ill humour is presupposed; and starting from this mistaken
conclusion, Schopenhauer arrives at his fantastic sequence of the
so-called intelligible freedom. But the ill humour after the deed is
not necessarily reasonable, indeed it is assuredly not reasonable, for
it is based upon the erroneous presumption that the action need _not_
have inevitably followed. Therefore, it is only because man _believes_
himself to be free, not because he is free, that he experiences remorse
and pricks of conscience. Moreover, this ill humour is a habit that can
be broken off; in many people it is entirely absent in connection with
actions where others experience it. It is a very changeable thing, and
one which is connected with the development of customs and culture,
and probably only existing during a comparatively short period of the
world's history. Nobody is responsible for his actions, nobody for his
nature; to judge is identical with being unjust. This also applies when
an individual judges himself. The theory is as clear as sunlight, and
yet every one prefers to go back into the shadow and the untruth, for
fear of the consequences.


THE SUPER-ANIMAL.--The beast in us wishes to be deceived; morality is
a lie of necessity in order that we may not be torn in pieces by it.
Without the errors which lie in the assumption of morality, man would
have remained an animal. Thus, however, he has considered himself as
something higher and has laid strict laws upon himself. Therefore he
hates the grades which have remained nearer to animalness, whereby the
former scorn of the slave, as a not-yet-man, is to be explained as a


THE UNCHANGEABLE CHARACTER.--That the character is unchangeable is
not true in a strict sense; this favourite theory means, rather, that
during the short lifetime of an individual the new influencing motives
cannot penetrate deeply enough to destroy the ingrained marks of many
thousands of years. But if one were

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Text Comparison with The Case Of Wagner, Nietzsche Contra Wagner, and Selected Aphorisms.

Page 5
Just as Goethe was an abortive painter, and Schiller an abortive orator, so Wagner was an abortive theatrical genius.
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Wagner belongs only to my diseases.
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It is lovable, it does not sweat.
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_ A typical _decadent_ who thinks himself necessary with his corrupted taste, who arrogates to himself a higher taste, who tries to establish his depravity as a law, as progress, as a fulfilment.
Page 21
Let us wander in the clouds, let us harangue eternity, let us be careful to group great symbols all around us! _Sursum! Bumbum!_--there is no better advice.
Page 23
In Wagner's case the first thing we notice is an hallucination, not of tones, but of attitudes.
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A whole act without a woman's voice would be impossible! But in this particular instance not one of the heroines happens to be free.
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" One pays dearly for having been a follower of Wagner.
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The female Wagnerite, the most attractive equivocality that exists to-day: she is the incarnation of Wagner's cause: his cause triumphs with her as its symbol.
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He believed in it.
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All real and original music is a swan song--Even our last form of music, despite its prevalence and its will to prevail, has perhaps only a short time to live, for it sprouted from a soil which was in the throes of a rapid subsidence,--of a culture which will soon be _submerged_.
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In it I thought I heard the earthquake by means of which a primeval life-force, which had been constrained for ages, was seeking at last to burst its bonds, quite indifferent to how much of that which nowadays calls itself culture, would thereby be shaken to ruins.
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Even at the present day, France is still the refuge of the most intellectual and refined culture in Europe, it remains the high school of taste: but one must know where to find this France of taste.
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Feuerbach's words "healthy sensuality" struck Wagner in the thirties and forties very much as they struck many other Germans--they called themselves the young Germans--that is to say, as words of salvation.
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Henceforward alone and cruelly distrustful of myself, I then took up sides--not without anger--_against myself_ and _for_ all that which hurt me and fell hard upon me; and thus I found the road to that courageous pessimism which is the opposite of all idealistic falsehood, and which, as it seems to me, is also the road to _me_--_to my mission_.
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they now appear, and were perhaps obliged to be: men of the moment, sensuous, absurd, versatile, light-minded and quick to trust and to distrust, with souls in which usually some flaw has to be concealed, often taking revenge with their works for an internal blemish, often seeking forgetfulness in their soaring from a too accurate memory, idealists out of proximity to the mud:--what a _torment_ these great artists are and the so-called higher men in general, to him who has once found them out! We are all special pleaders in the cause of mediocrity.
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"_Tout comprendre c'est tout mepriser.
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, authorised English edition.