Human, All-Too-Human: A Book for Free Spirits, Part 1 Complete Works, Volume Six

By Friedrich Nietzsche

Page 174

veneration of Gods and Princes. Wherever an effort is made to exalt
particular men to the superhuman, there is also a tendency to regard
whole grades of the population as coarser and baser than they really


MY UTOPIA.--In a better arranged society the heavy work and trouble
of life will be assigned to those who suffer least through it, to the
most obtuse, therefore; and so step by step up to those who are most
sensitive to the highest and sublimest kinds of suffering, and who
therefore still suffer notwithstanding the greatest alleviations of


A DELUSION IN SUBVERSIVE DOCTRINES.--There are political and social
dreamers who ardently and eloquently call for the overthrow of all
order, in the belief that the proudest fane of beautiful humanity
will then rear itself immediately, almost of its own accord. In these
dangerous dreams there is still an echo of Rousseau's superstition,
which believes in a marvellous primordial goodness of human nature,
buried up, as it were; and lays all the blame of that burying-up on
the institutions of civilisation, on society, State, and education.
Unfortunately, it is well known by historical experiences that
every such overthrow reawakens into new life the wildest energies,
the long-buried horrors and extravagances of remotest ages; that
an overthrow, therefore, may possibly be a source of strength to a
deteriorated humanity, but never a regulator, architect, artist,
or perfecter of human nature. It was not _Voltaire's_ moderate
nature, inclined towards regulating, purifying, and reconstructing,
but _Rousseau's_ passionate follies and half-lies that aroused the
optimistic spirit of the Revolution, against which I cry, "_Écrasez
l'infâme!_" Owing to this _the Spirit of enlightenment and progressive
development_ has been long scared away; let us see--each of us
individually--if it is not possible to recall it!


MODERATION.--When perfect resoluteness in thinking and investigating,
that is to say, freedom of spirit, has become a feature of character,
it produces moderation of conduct; for it weakens avidity, attracts
much extant energy for the furtherance of intellectual aims, and shows
the semi-usefulness, or uselessness and danger, of all sudden changes.


THE RESURRECTION OF THE SPIRIT.--A nation usually renews its youth on
a political sick-bed, and there finds again the spirit which it had
gradually lost in seeking and maintaining power. Culture is indebted
most of all to politically weakened periods.


NEW OPINIONS IN THE OLD HOME.--The overthrow of opinions is not
immediately followed by the overthrow of institutions; on the contrary,
the new opinions dwell for a long time in the desolate and haunted
house of their predecessors, and conserve it even for want of a


PUBLIC EDUCATION.--In large States public education will always be
extremely mediocre, for

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Text Comparison with On the Future of our Educational Institutions; Homer and Classical Philology Complete Works, Volume Three

Page 5
Thus, while I disclaim all desire of being taken for an uninvited adviser on questions relating to the schools and the University of Bâle, I repudiate even more emphatically still the rôle of a prophet standing on the horizon of civilisation and pretending to predict the future of education and of scholastic organisation.
Page 6
" Now it is only in the spirit of the hope above mentioned that I wish to speak of the future of our educational institutions: and this is the second point in regard to which I must tender an apology from the outset.
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Page 32
' And so long as German public schools prepare the road for outrageous and irresponsible scribbling, so long as they do not regard the immediate and practical discipline of speaking and writing as their most holy duty, so long as they treat the mother-tongue as if it were only a necessary evil or a dead body, I shall not regard these institutions as belonging to real culture.
Page 33
For a 'classical education' is something so unheard of, difficult and rare, and exacts such complicated talent, that only ingenuousness or impudence could put it forward as an attainable goal in our public schools.
Page 36
Nobody reaches antiquity by means of a leap into the dark, and yet the whole method of treating ancient writers in schools, the plain commentating and paraphrasing of our philological teachers, amounts to nothing more than a leap into the dark.
Page 39
"A thorough reformation and purification of the public school can only be the outcome of a profound and powerful reformation and purification of the German spirit.
Page 42
But we may surely be unanimous in recognising that by the very nature of things only an exceedingly small number of people are destined for a true course of education, and that a much smaller number of higher educational.
Page 52
the germs of his culture could not develop, but also that all his inimitable and perennial culture had flourished so luxuriantly under the wise and careful guardianship of the protection afforded by the State.
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point of view, instead of which we have shrewd and clever calculations, and, so to speak, overreachings of nature.
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It may perhaps be a law of nature that only the later generations are destined to know by what divine gifts an earlier generation was favoured.
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And we were thus rather unwillingly preparing to depart when something else suddenly brought him to a standstill, and the foot he had just raised sank hesitatingly to the ground again.
Page 73
The philosopher then turned to us and said: "Well, if you really did listen attentively, perhaps you can now tell me what you understand by the expression 'the present aim of our public schools.
Page 77
"In what relationship these universities stand to _art_ cannot be acknowledged without shame: in none at all.
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For these latter show by their base smugness and their narrow professional limitations that this is the right element for them: against which there is nothing to be said.
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Such a degenerate man of culture is a serious matter, and it is a horrifying spectacle for us to see that all our scholarly and journalistic publicity bears the stigma of this degeneracy upon it.
Page 88
When, however, even the friends of antiquity, possessed of such doubts and hesitations, point to our present classical philology as something questionable, what influence may we not ascribe to the outbursts of the "realists" and the claptrap of the heroes of the passing hour? To answer the latter on this occasion, especially when we consider the nature of the present assembly, would be highly injudicious; at any rate, if I do not wish to meet with the fate of that sophist who, when in Sparta, publicly undertook to praise and defend Herakles, when he was interrupted with the query: "But who then has found fault with him?" I cannot help thinking, however, that some of these scruples are still sounding in the ears of not a few in this gathering; for they may still be frequently heard from the lips of noble and artistically gifted men--as even an upright philologist must feel them, and feel them most painfully, at moments when his spirits are downcast.
Page 89
Up to this time the Homeric question had run through the long chain of a uniform process of development,.
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It was imagined that new shells were forming round a small kernel, so to speak, and that those pieces of popular poetry originated like avalanches, in the drift and flow of tradition.
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This imaginary contest with Hesiod did not even yet show the faintest presentiment of individuality.