Human, All-Too-Human: A Book for Free Spirits, Part 1 Complete Works, Volume Six

By Friedrich Nietzsche

Page 173

of the former.


ARBITRARY LAW NECESSARY.--Jurists dispute whether the most perfectly
thought-out law or that which is most easily understood should prevail
in a nation. The former, the best model of which is Roman Law, seems
incomprehensible to the layman, and is therefore not the expression of
his sense of justice. Popular laws, the Germanic, for instance, have
been rude, superstitious, illogical, and in part idiotic, but they
represented very definite, inherited national morals and sentiments.
But where, as with us, law i no longer custom, it can only _command_
and be compulsion; none of us any longer possesses a traditional sense
of justice; we must therefore content ourselves with _arbitrary laws,_
which are the expressions of the necessity that there _must be_ law.
The most logical is then in any case the most acceptable, because it
is the most _impartial,_ granting even that in every case the smallest
unit of measure in the relation of crime and punishment is arbitrarily


THE GREAT MAN OF THE MASSES.--The recipe for what the masses call a
great man is easily given. In all circumstances let a person provide
them with something very pleasant, or first let him put it into their
heads that this or that would be very pleasant, and then let him give
it to them. On no account give it _immediately,_ however: but let
him acquire it by the greatest exertions, or seem thus to acquire
it. The masses must have the impression that there is a powerful,
nay indomitable strength of will operating; at least it must seem to
be there operating. Everybody admires a strong will, because nobody
possesses it, and everybody says to himself that if he did possess
it there would no longer be any bounds for him and his egoism. If,
then, it becomes evident that such a strong will effects something
very agreeable to the masses, instead of hearkening to the wishes
of covetousness, people admire once more, and wish good luck to
themselves. Moreover, if he has all the qualities of the masses, they
are the less ashamed before him, and he is all the more popular.
Consequently, he may be violent, envious, rapacious, intriguing,
flattering, fawning, inflated, and, according to circumstances,
anything whatsoever.


PRINCE AND GOD.--People frequently commune with their princes in the
same way as with their God, as indeed the prince himself was frequently
the Deity's representative, or at least His high priest. This almost
uncanny disposition of veneration, disquiet, and shame, grew, and has
grown, much weaker, but occasionally it flares up again, and fastens
upon powerful persons generally. The cult of genius is an echo of

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Text Comparison with Thoughts Out of Season, Part II

Page 11
Who would ever dream of any "monumental history" among them, the hard torch-race that alone gives life to greatness? And yet there are always men awakening, who are strengthened and made happy by gazing on past greatness, as though man's life were a lordly thing, and the fairest fruit of this bitter tree were the knowledge that there was once a man who walked sternly and proudly through this world, another who had pity and loving-kindness, another who lived in contemplation,--but all leaving one truth behind them, that his life is the fairest who thinks least about life.
Page 13
They are connoisseurs of art, primarily because they wish to kill art; they pretend to be physicians, when their real idea is to dabble in poisons.
Page 29
Such imagination has certainly more danger in it than the contrary madness of a positive vice.
Page 32
Unless it be that objects are expected in such moments to paint or photograph themselves by their own activity on a purely passive medium! But this would be a myth, and a bad one at that.
Page 33
In other sciences the generalisations are the most important things, as they contain the laws.
Page 55
But in this battle we shall discover an unpleasant truth--that men intentionally help, and encourage, and use, the worst aberrations of the historical sense from which the present time suffers.
Page 59
He wishes for the flower without the root or the stalk; and so he wishes in vain.
Page 60
" With these names we return to the beginning of our inquiry and draw near to its final close.
Page 73
The "truth," however, of which we hear so much from our professors, seems to be a far more modest being, and no kind of disturbance is to be feared from her; she is an easy-going and pleasant creature, who is continually assuring the powers that be that no one need fear any trouble from her quarter: for man is only "pure reason.
Page 83
We are feeling the consequences of the doctrine, preached lately from all the housetops, that the state is the highest end of man and there is no higher duty than to serve it: I regard this not a relapse into paganism, but into stupidity.
Page 88
Everything that can be denied, deserves to be denied; and real sincerity means the belief in a state of things which cannot be denied, or in which there is no lie.
Page 90
The heroic man does not think of his happiness or misery, his virtues or his vices, or of his being the measure of things; he has no further hopes of himself and will accept the utter consequences of his hopelessness.
Page 109
To the small company on the other road it has quite a different office: they wish to guard themselves, by means of a strong organisation, from being swept away by the throng, to prevent their individual members from fainting on the way or turning in spirit from their great task.
Page 114
The contemplative man in Germany usually pursues his scientific studies to the detriment of his sincerity, as a "considerate fool," in search of place and honour, circumspect and obsequious, and fawning on his influential superiors.
Page 115
But, historically, Plato has been very unlucky; as soon as a structure has risen corresponding actually to his proposals, it has always turned, on a closer view, into a goblin-child, a monstrous changeling; compare the ecclesiastical state of the Middle Ages with the government of the "God-born king" of which Plato dreamed! The modern state is furthest removed from the idea of the Philosopher-king (Thank Heaven for that! the Christian will say); but we must think whether it takes that very "encouragement of philosophy" in a Platonic sense, I mean as seriously and honestly as if its highest object were to produce more Platos.
Page 116
But in Kant we have the usual submissive professor, without any nobility in his relations with the state; and thus he could not justify the University philosophy when it was once assailed.
Page 117
And not only the state, but everything required by it for existence--a definite form of religion, a social system, a standing army; a _noli me tangere_ is written above all these things.
Page 120
They have given up such pretensions now, and have become mostly mild, muddled folk, with no Lucretian boldness, but merely some spiteful complaints of the "dead weight that lies on the intellects of mankind"! No one can even learn logic from them now, and their obvious knowledge of their own powers has made them discontinue the dialectical disputations common in the old days.
Page 122
Without this indifferent attitude, philosophy may become dangerous and oppressive, and will have to be persecuted.
Page 123
At least I believe the real sciences must see that their interest lies in freeing themselves from all contact with sham science.