Human, All-Too-Human: A Book for Free Spirits, Part 1 Complete Works, Volume Six

By Friedrich Nietzsche

Page 14

here, with religion, art,
and morals we do not touch the "essence of the world in itself"; we are
in the domain of representation, no "intuition" can carry us further.
With the greatest calmness we shall leave the question as to how our
own conception of the world can differ so widely from the revealed
essence of the world, to physiology and the history of the evolution of
organisms and ideas.


11.

LANGUAGE AS A PRESUMPTIVE SCIENCE.--The importance of language for
the development of culture lies in the fact that in language man has
placed a world of his own beside the other, a position which he deemed
so fixed that he might therefrom lift the rest of the world off its
hinges, and make himself master of it. Inasmuch as man has believed in
the ideas and names of things as _æternæ veritates_ for a great length
of time, he has acquired that pride by which he has raised himself
above the animal; he really thought that in language he possessed
the knowledge of the world. The maker of language was not modest
enough to think that he only gave designations to things, he believed
rather that with his words he expressed the widest knowledge of the
things; in reality language is the first step in the endeavour after
science. Here also it is belief in ascertained truth, from which the
mightiest sources of strength have flowed. Much later--only now--it
is dawning upon men that they have propagated a tremendous error in
their belief in language. Fortunately it is now too late to reverse
the development of reason, which is founded upon that belief. _Logic,_
also, is founded upon suppositions to which nothing in the actual
world corresponds,--for instance, on the supposition of the equality
of things, and the identity of the same thing at different points of
time,--but that particular science arose out of the contrary belief
(that such things really existed in the actual world). It is the same
with mathematics, which would certainly not have arisen if it had been
known from the beginning that in Nature there are no exactly straight
lines, no real circle, no absolute standard of size.


12.

DREAM AND CULTURE.--The function of the brain which is most influenced
by sleep is the memory; not that it entirely ceases; but it is brought
back to a condition of imperfection, such as everyone may have
experienced in pre-historic times, whether asleep or awake. Arbitrary
and confused as it is, it constantly confounds things on the ground
of the most fleeting resemblances; but with the same arbitrariness
and confusion the ancients invented their mythologies,

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i.
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The loftiest and the basest powers of human nature, the sweetest, the lightest, and the most terrible, rush forth from out one spring with everlasting certainty.
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"Whither have ye fled, the tears of mine eyes and the bloom of my heart? Oh, the solitude of all givers! Oh, the silence of all beacons! "Many are the suns that circle in barren space; to all that is dark do they speak with their light--to me alone are they silent.
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_ "Ye higher men, on whom my gaze now falls, this is the doubt that ye wake in my breast, and this is my secret laughter: methinks ye would call my Superman--the devil! So strange are ye in your souls to all that is great, that the Superman would be terrible in your eyes for his goodness.
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are all virtuous, yea every one.
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What matter words? What matter I? 34 Ah, my friends, Whither has flown all that is called "good"? Whither all good people? Whither the innocence of all these falsehoods? I call all good, Leaves and grass, happiness, blessing, and rain.
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44 Back! on my heels too closely ye follow! Back! lest my wisdom should tread on you, crush you! 45 "He goes to hell who goes thy ways!" So be it I.
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