Human, All-Too-Human: A Book for Free Spirits, Part 1 Complete Works, Volume Six

By Friedrich Nietzsche

Page 136

phases artificially.
Historical studies form the qualification for this painting, for they
constantly incite us in regard to a portion of history, a people,
or a human life, to imagine for ourselves a quite distinct horizon
of thoughts, a certain strength of feelings, the prominence of this
or the obscurity of that. Herein consists the historic sense, that
out of given instances we can quickly reconstruct such systems of
thoughts and feelings, just as we can mentally reconstruct a temple
out of a few pillars and remains of walls accidentally left standing.
The next result is that we understand our fellow-men as belonging to
distinct systems and representatives of different cultures--that is, as
necessary, but as changeable; and, again, that we can separate portions
of our own development and put them down independently.


CYNICS AND EPICUREANS.--The cynic recognises the connection between
the multiplied and stronger pains of the more highly cultivated man
and the abundance of requirements; he comprehends, therefore, that
the multitude of opinions about what is beautiful, suitable, seemly
and pleasing, must also produce very rich sources of enjoyment, but
also of displeasure. In accordance with this view he educates himself
backwards, by giving up many of these opinions and withdrawing from
certain demands of culture; he thereby gains a feeling of freedom
and strength; and gradually, when habit has made his manner of life
endurable, his sensations of displeasure are, as a matter of fact,
rarer and weaker than those of cultivated people, and approach those of
the domestic animal; moreover, he experiences everything with the charm
of contrast, and--he can also scold to his heart's content; so that
thereby he again rises high above the sensation-range of the animal.
The Epicurean has the same point of view as the cynic; there is usually
only a difference of temperament between them. Then the Epicurean makes
use of his higher culture to render himself independent of prevailing
opinions, he raises himself above them, whilst the cynic only remains
negative. He walks, as it were, in wind-protected, well-sheltered,
half-dark paths, whilst over him, in the wind, the tops of the trees
rustle and show him how violently agitated is the world out there. The
cynic, on the contrary, goes, as it were, naked into the rushing of the
wind and hardens himself to the point of insensibility.


MICROCOSM AND MACROCOSM OF CULTURE.--The best discoveries about
culture man makes within himself when he finds two heterogeneous powers
ruling therein. Supposing some one were living as much in love for
the plastic arts or for music as he was carried away by the spirit of
science, and that he were to

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Text Comparison with On the Future of our Educational Institutions

Page 3
Finally, the author would wish his reader to be fully alive to the specific character of our present barbarism and of that which distinguishes us, as the barbarians of the nineteenth century, from other barbarians.
Page 26
Everybody speaks and writes German as thoroughly.
Page 29
_ with the spirit of its classical poets and artists? This is a dark and thorny sphere, into which one cannot even bear a light without dread; but even here we shall conceal nothing from ourselves; for sooner or later the whole of it will have to be reformed.
Page 31
Now let us consider, besides, the danger of arousing the self-complacency which is so easily awakened in youths; let us think how their vanity must be flattered when they see their literary reflection for the first time in the mirror.
Page 33
"Only by means of such discipline can the young man acquire that physical loathing for the beloved and much-admired 'elegance' of style of our newspaper manufacturers and novelists, and for the 'ornate style' of our literary men; by it alone is he irrevocably elevated at a stroke above a whole host of absurd questions and scruples, such, for instance, as whether Auerbach and Gutzkow are really poets, for his disgust at both will be so great that he will be unable to read them any longer, and thus the problem will be solved for him.
Page 38
With this would-be German and thoroughly unoriginal culture, the German can nowhere reckon upon victory: the Frenchman and the Italian will always get the better of him in this respect, while, in regard to the clever imitation of a foreign culture, the Russian, above all, will always be his superior.
Page 41
We want nothing for ourselves, and it should be nothing to us how many individuals may fall in this battle, or whether we ourselves may be among the first.
Page 43
What is called the 'education of the masses' cannot be accomplished except with difficulty; and even if a system of universal compulsory education be applied, they can only be reached outwardly: those individual lower levels where, generally speaking, the masses come into contact with culture, where the people nourishes its religious instinct, where it poetises its mythological images, where it keeps up its faith in its customs, privileges, native soil, and language--all these levels can scarcely be reached by direct means, and in any case only by violent demolition.
Page 47
Whoever is acquainted with.
Page 49
Indeed, we can discuss this dire necessity only in so far as the modern State is willing to discuss these things with us, and is prepared to follow up its demands by force: which phenomenon certainly makes the same impression upon most people as if they were addressed by the eternal law of things.
Page 51
With the real German spirit and the education derived therefrom, such as I have slowly outlined for you, this purpose of the State is at war, hiddenly or openly: _the_ spirit of education, which is welcomed and encouraged with such interest by the State, and owing to which the schools of this country are so much admired abroad, must accordingly originate in a sphere that.
Page 54
"But even in this highest form of the ego, in the enhanced needs of such a distended and, as it were, collective individual, true culture is never touched upon; and if, for example, art is sought after, only its disseminating and stimulating actions come into prominence, _i.
Page 57
Night slowly fell in the meantime; and when in the twilight the philosopher's voice had sounded like natural music through the woods, it now rang out in the profound darkness of the night when he was speaking with excitement or even passionately; his tones hissing and thundering far down the valley, and reverberating among the trees and rocks.
Page 58
Our embrace was a miserable failure when we did overtake him; for my friend gave a loud yell as the dog bit him, and the philosopher himself sprang away from me with such force that we both fell.
Page 59
rate so far as they could be cleared up in the darkness of the wood.
Page 65
Don't be in a hurry; carry this question about with you, but do at any rate consider it day and night.
Page 69
But he has left me in the lurch for once: how annoying it is! Come away with me! It's time to go!" At this moment something happened.
Page 72
We may also be allowed to remind you that you, at an earlier stage of your remarks, gave me the promise that you would do so.
Page 78
And then he once more falls from the heights of his eagerly-desired self-knowledge into an ironical scepticism.
Page 85
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