Human, All-Too-Human: A Book for Free Spirits, Part 1 Complete Works, Volume Six

By Friedrich Nietzsche

Page 121

thoughtless selfishness so surely that I could only be
called an evil, demoniacal being but its aims, which are occasionally
transparent, are great and good. It is a centaur, half-beast, half-man,
and, in addition, has angel's wings upon its head.


THE MIRACLE-EDUCATION.--Interest in Education will acquire great
strength only from the moment when belief in a God and His care is
renounced, just as the art of healing you only flourish when the
belief in miracle-cures ceased. So far, however, there is universal
belief in the miracle-education; out of the greatest disorder and
confusion of aims and unfavourableness of conditions, the most
fertile and mighty men have been seen to grow; could this happen
naturally? Soon these cases will be more closely looked into, more
carefully examined; but miracles will never be discovered. In similar
circumstances countless persons perish constantly; the few saved have,
therefore, usually grown stronger, because they endured these bad
conditions by virtue of an inexhaustible inborn strength, and this
strength they had also exercised and increased by fighting against
these circumstances; thus the miracle is explained. An education that
no longer believes in miracles must pay attention to three things:
first, how much energy is inherited? secondly, by what means can
new energy be aroused? thirdly, how can the individual be adapted
to so many and manifold claims of culture without being disquieted
and destroying his personality,--in short, how can the individual be
initiated into the counterpoint of private and public culture, how can
he lead the melody and at the same time Accompany it?


THE FUTURE OF THE PHYSICIAN.--There is now no profession which would
admit of such an enhancement as that of the physician; that is, after
the spiritual physicians the so-called pastors, are no longer allowed
to practise their conjuring tricks to public applause, and a cultured
person gets out of their way. The highest mental development of a
physician has not yet been reached, even if he understands the best
and newest methods, is practised in them, and knows how to draw those
rapid conclusions from effects to causes for which the diagnostics are
celebrated; besides this, he must possess a gift of eloquence that
adapts itself to every individual and draws his heart out of his body;
a manliness, the sight of which alone drives away all despondency (the
canker of all sick people), the tact and suppleness of a diplomatist
in negotiations between such as have need of joy for their recovery
and such as, for reasons of health, must (and can) give joy; the
acuteness of a detective and an attorney to divine the secrets of
a soul without

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Text Comparison with The Birth of Tragedy; or, Hellenism and Pessimism

Page 8
" "I should like to be something more than a mere trainer of capable philologists: the present generation of teachers, the care of the growing broods,--all this is in my mind.
Page 11
Page 12
Profound suspicions about morality (--it is part and parcel of the world of appearance).
Page 14
), full of psychological innovations and artists' secrets, with an artists' metaphysics in the background, a work of youth, full of youth's mettle and youth's melancholy, independent, defiantly self-sufficient even when it seems to bow to some authority and self-veneration; in short, a firstling-work, even in every bad sense of the term; in spite of its senile problem, affected with every fault of youth, above all with youth's prolixity and youth's "storm and stress": on the other hand, in view of the success it had (especially with the great artist to whom it addressed itself, as it were, in a duologue, Richard Wagner) a _demonstrated_ book, I mean a book which, at any rate, sufficed "for the best of its time.
Page 15
It should have _sung,_ this "new soul"--and not spoken! What a pity, that I did not dare to say what I then had to say, as a poet: I could have done so perhaps! Or at least as a philologist:--for even at the present day well-nigh everything in this domain remains to be discovered and disinterred by the philologist! Above all the problem, _that_ here there _is_ a problem before us,--and that, so long as we have no answer to the question "what is Dionysian?" the Greeks are now as ever wholly unknown and inconceivable.
Page 16
A fundamental question is the relation of the Greek to pain, his degree of sensibility,--did this relation remain constant? or did it veer about?--the question, whether his ever-increasing _longing for beauty,_ for festivals, gaieties, new cults, did really grow out of want, privation, melancholy, pain? For suppose even this to be true--and Pericles (or Thucydides) intimates as much in the great Funeral Speech:--whence then the opposite longing, which appeared first in the order of time, the _longing for the ugly_, the good, resolute desire of the Old Hellene for pessimism, for tragic myth, for the picture of all that is terrible, evil, enigmatical, destructive, fatal at the basis of existence,--whence then must tragedy have sprung? Perhaps from _joy,_ from strength, from exuberant health, from over-fullness.
Page 18
How I now regret, that I had not then the courage (or immodesty?) to allow myself, in all respects, the use of an _individual language_ for such _individual_ contemplations and ventures in the field of thought--that I laboured to express, in Kantian and Schopenhauerian formulæ, strange and new valuations, which ran fundamentally counter to the spirit of Kant and Schopenhauer, as well as to their taste! What, forsooth, were Schopenhauer's views on tragedy? "What gives"--he says in _Welt als Wille und Vorstellung,_ II.
Page 24
Add to this awe the blissful ecstasy which rises from the innermost depths of man, ay, of nature, at this same collapse of the _principium individuationis,_ and we shall gain an insight into the being of the _Dionysian,_ which is brought within closest ken perhaps by the analogy of _drunkenness.
Page 27
In nearly every instance the centre of these festivals lay in extravagant sexual licentiousness, the waves of which overwhelmed all family life and its venerable traditions; the very wildest beasts of nature were let loose here, including that detestable mixture of lust and cruelty which has always seemed to me the genuine "witches' draught.
Page 34
If, then, in this way, in the strife of these two hostile principles, the older Hellenic history falls into four great periods of art, we are now driven to inquire after the ulterior purpose of these unfoldings and processes, unless perchance we should regard the last-attained period, the period of Doric art, as the end and aim of these artistic impulses: and here the sublime and highly celebrated art-work of _Attic tragedy_ and dramatic dithyramb presents itself to our view as the common goal of both these impulses, whose mysterious union, after many and long precursory struggles, found its glorious consummation in such a child,--which is at once Antigone and Cassandra.
Page 42
Rather should we say that all phenomena, compared with it, are but symbols: hence _language,_ as the organ and symbol of phenomena, cannot at all disclose the innermost essence, of music; language can only be in superficial contact with music when it attempts to imitate music; while the profoundest significance of the latter cannot be brought one step nearer to us by all the eloquence of lyric poetry.
Page 43
But the tradition.
Page 56
This Titanic impulse, to become as it were the Atlas of all individuals, and to carry them on broad shoulders higher and higher, farther and farther, is what the Promethean and the Dionysian have in common.
Page 66
" Here we no longer observe anything of the epic absorption in appearance, or of the unemotional coolness of the true actor, who precisely in his highest activity is wholly appearance and joy in appearance.
Page 74
This perplexity with respect to the chorus first manifests itself in Sophocles--an important sign that the Dionysian basis of tragedy already begins to disintegrate with him.
Page 79
Even the sublimest moral acts, the stirrings of pity, of self-sacrifice, of heroism, and that tranquillity of soul, so difficult of attainment, which the Apollonian Greek called Sophrosyne, were derived by Socrates, and his like-minded successors up to the present day, from the dialectics of knowledge, and were accordingly designated as teachable.
Page 91
Now, we must not hide from ourselves what is concealed in the heart of this Socratic culture: Optimism, deeming itself absolute! Well, we must not be alarmed if the fruits of this optimism ripen,--if society, leavened to the very lowest strata by this kind of culture, gradually begins to tremble through wanton agitations and desires, if the belief in the earthly happiness of all, if the belief in the possibility of such a general intellectual culture is gradually transformed into the threatening demand for such an Alexandrine earthly happiness, into the conjuring of a Euripidean _deus ex machina.
Page 96
In the sense of this belief, opera is the expression of the taste of the laity in art, who dictate their laws with the cheerful optimism of the theorist.
Page 112
And now the myth-less man remains eternally hungering among all the bygones, and digs and grubs for roots, though he have to dig for them even among the remotest antiquities.
Page 113
culture which cannot be appeased by all it devours, and in contact with which the most vigorous and wholesome nourishment is wont to change into "history and criticism"? We should also have to regard our German character with despair and sorrow, if it had already become inextricably entangled in, or even identical with this culture, in a similar manner as we can observe it to our horror to be the case in civilised France; and that which for a long time was the great advantage of France and the cause of her vast preponderance, to wit, this very identity of people and culture, might compel us at the sight thereof to congratulate ourselves that this culture of ours, which is so questionable, has hitherto had nothing in common with the noble kernel of the character of our people.