deceives himself, because
those things enrapture him so profoundly, and make him so profoundly
unhappy, and he therefore shows the same pride here as in astrology.
For astrology believes that the firmament moves round the destiny of
man; the moral man, however, takes it for granted that what he has
essentially at heart must also be the essence and heart of things.
MISUNDERSTANDING OF DREAMS.--In the ages of a rude and primitive
civilisation man believed that in dreams he became acquainted with
a _second actual world_; herein lies the origin of all metaphysics.
Without dreams there could have been found no reason for a division of
the world. The distinction, too, between soul and body is connected
with the most ancient comprehension of dreams, also the supposition of
an imaginary soul-body, therefore the origin of all belief in spirits,
and probably also the belief in gods. "The dead continues to live,
_for_ he appears to the living in a dream": thus men reasoned of old
for thousands and thousands of years.
THE SCIENTIFIC SPIRIT PARTIALLY BUT NOT WHOLLY POWERFUL.--The
_smallest_ subdivisions of science taken separately are dealt with
purely in relation to themselves,--the general, great sciences, on the
contrary, regarded as a whole, call up the question--certainly a very
non-objective one--"Wherefore? To what end?" It is this utilitarian
consideration which causes them to be dealt with less impersonally
when taken as a whole than when considered in their various parts.
In philosophy, above all, as the apex of the entire, pyramid of
science, the question as to the utility of knowledge is involuntarily
brought forward, and every philosophy has the unconscious intention of
ascribing to it the _greatest_ usefulness. For this reason there is so
much high-flying metaphysics in all philosophies and such a shyness of
the apparently unimportant solutions of physics; for the importance
of knowledge for life _must_ appear as great as possible. Here is the
antagonism between the separate provinces of science and philosophy.
The latter desires, what art does, to give the greatest possible depth
and meaning to life and actions; in the former one seeks knowledge and
nothing further, whatever may emerge thereby. So far there has been no
philosopher in whose hands philosophy has not grown into an apology
for knowledge; on this point, at least, every one is an optimist, that
the greatest usefulness must be ascribed to knowledge. They are all
tyrannised over by logic, and this is optimism--in its essence.
THE KILL-JOY IN SCIENCE.--Philosophy separated from science when it
asked the question, "Which is the knowledge of the world and of life
which enables man to live most happily?" This happened
This is easy to understand in a state of things inspired mainly by emulation, but emulation was looked upon as good, and valued accordingly.Page 36
Our own century denies the existence of this insecurity, and does so with a good conscience, yet it clings to the old habit of Christian certainties, enjoyments, recreations, and valuations!--even in its noblest arts and philosophies.Page 43
A PROPOSAL.Page 59
As a consequence, they all live in a haze of impersonal and half-personal opinions and of arbitrary and, as it were, poetic valuations: the one always in the head of another, and this head, again, in the head of somebody else--a queer world of phantoms which manages to give itself a rational appearance! This haze of opinions and habits grows in extent and lives almost independently of the people it surrounds; it is it which gives rise to the immense effect of general judgments on "man"--all those men, who do not know themselves, believe in a bloodless abstraction which they call "man," _i.Page 62
For this, unhappily, is generally the outcome of the application of this third method.Page 64
It is thus our pride that orders us to do our duty--we desire to re-establish our own independence by opposing to that which others have done for us something that we do for them, for in that way the others invade our sphere of power, and would for ever have a hand in it if we did not make reprisals by means of "duty," and thus encroach upon their power.Page 99
But, alas, this has up to the present been so un-German; as un-German as the fuss made about music and the discord and bad temper excited around the person of the musician; or as un-German as the new and extraordinary position taken up by Schopenhauer: he did not feel himself to be either above things or on his knees before them--one or other of these alternatives might still have been German--but he assumed an attitude against things! How incredible and disagreeable! to range one's self with things and nevertheless be their adversary, and finally the adversary of one's self,--what can the unconditional admirer do with such an example? And what, again, can he do with three such examples who cannot keep the peace towards one another! Here we see Schopenhauer as the antagonist of Wagner's music, Wagner attacking Bismarck's politics, and Bismarck attacking Wagnerism and Schopenhauerism.Page 102
Tragedy appeals to souls who feel pity in this way, to those fierce and warlike souls which are difficult to overcome, whether by fear or pity, but which lose nothing by being softened from time to time.Page 115
In the third place, there are the natural philosophers who fought against the spirit of Newton and Voltaire, and, like Goethe and Schopenhauer, endeavoured to re-establish the idea of a deified or diabolised nature, and of its absolute ethical and symbolical meaning.Page 131
THE ARTIST.Page 140
_ That is just what I wished to hear from you.Page 141
Joined to this a genius possesses a mirror which reflects the two movements beside one another, and within one another, but often opposed.Page 161
--When, in the Greece of the third century, philosophy had become a matter of public emulation, there were not a few philosophers who became happy through the thought that others who lived according to different principles, and suffered from them, could not but feel envious of their happiness.Page 165
--In some thinkers the contemplative state peculiar to a thinker is always the consequence of a state of fear, in others always of desire.Page 170
It is this defect which developed the playful facility that characterised the Greeks of seeing the phenomena of nature as gods and demi-gods--that is to say, as human forms.Page 190
Humanity is henceforth at liberty to wait: men need no longer be in a hurry to swallow badly-tested ideas as they had to do in former times.Page 193
Open your stage eye, that big third eye of yours, which looks out into the world through the other two.