Human, All-Too-Human: A Book for Free Spirits, Part 1 Complete Works, Volume Six

By Friedrich Nietzsche

Page 114

to bring
forward his reasons against bigamy and then it will be seen whether his
holy zeal in favour of monogamy is based upon reason or upon custom.
The adoption of guiding principles without reasons is called _faith._


UN-REASON.--All states and orders of society, professions, matrimony,
education, law: all these find strength and duration only in the faith
which the fettered spirits repose in them,--that is, in the absence of
reasons, or at least in the averting of inquiries as to reasons. The
restricted spirits do not willingly acknowledge this, and feel that
it is a _pudendum._ Christianity, however, which was very simple in
its intellectual ideas, remarked nothing of this _pudendum,_ required
faith and nothing but faith, and passionately repulsed the demand
for reasons; it pointed to the success of faith: "You will soon feel
the advantages of faith," it suggested, "and through faith shall ye
be saved." As an actual fact, the State pursues the same course, and
every father brings up his son in the same way: "Only believe this,"
he says, "and you will soon feel the good it does." This implies,
however, that the truth of an opinion is proved by its personal
usefulness; the wholesomeness of a doctrine must be a guarantee for
its intellectual surety and solidity. It is exactly as if an accused
person in a court of law were to say, "My counsel speaks the whole
truth, for only see what is the result of his speech: I shall be
acquitted." Because the fettered spirits retain their principles on
account of their usefulness, they suppose that the free spirit also
seeks his own advantage in his views and only holds that to be true
which is profitable to him. But as he appears to find profitable just
the contrary of that which his compatriots or equals find profitable,
these latter assume that his principles are dangerous to them; they say
or feel, "He must not be right, for he is injurious to us."


THE STRONG, GOOD CHARACTER.--The restriction of views, which habit has
made instinct, leads to what is called strength of character. When
any one acts from few but always from the same motives, his actions
acquire great energy; if these actions accord with the principles of
the fettered spirits they are recognised, and they produce, moreover,
in those who perform them the sensation of a good conscience. Few
motives, energetic action, and a good conscience compose what is called
strength of character. The man of strong character lacks a knowledge
of the many possibilities and directions

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Text Comparison with We Philologists Complete Works of Friedrich Nietzsche, Volume 8

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Greek antiquity is now investigated as the most beautiful example of life.
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The value of antiquity: it sinks with you: how deeply you must have sunk, since its value is now so little! 8 It is a great advantage for the true philologist that a great deal of preliminary work has been done in his science, so that he may take possession of this inheritance if he is strong enough for it--I refer to the valuation of the entire Hellenic mode of thinking.
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" 13 Vanity is the involuntary inclination to set one's self up for an individual while not really being one; that is to say, trying to appear independent when one is dependent.
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its progress having been furthered for centuries by the greatest number of scholars in every nation who have had charge of the noblest pupils.
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For, if the cases were identical, preoccupation with Greek and Roman antiquity would be identical with the "science of education.
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They have still the schools in their hands: but for how long! In the form in which it has existed up to the present philology is dying out; the ground has been swept from under its feet.
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" Voltaire said.
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43 It is true that both humanism and rationalism have brought antiquity into the field as an ally; and it is therefore quite comprehensible that the opponents of humanism should direct their attacks against antiquity also.
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Are they? 48 Origin of the philologist.
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50 Ah, it is a sad story, the story of philology! The disgusting erudition, the lazy, inactive passivity, the timid submission.
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The improving of texts is an entertaining piece of work for scholars, it is a kind of riddle-solving; but it should not be looked upon as a very important task.
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93 The consistency which is prized in a savant is pedantry if applied to the Greeks.
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There are still hopes .
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There are many contrasts to be found here.
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141 The "martyr" is Hellenic: Prometheus, Hercules.
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If once the opposite views gain the mastery--for instance, a strict law of nature, the helplessness and superfluousness of all gods, the strict conception of the soul as a bodily process--all is over.
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169 Those who say: "But antiquity nevertheless remains as a subject of consideration for pure science, even though all its educational purposes may be disowned," must be answered by the words, What is pure science here! Actions and characteristics must be judged; and those who judge them must stand above them: so you must first devote your attention to overcoming antiquity.
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Even at this early stage the question will arise: was it absolutely necessary that this should have been so? He gradually comes to need history to ascertain how these things have been brought about.
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[14] A type in Schopenhauer's Essay "On Religion.