Human, All-Too-Human: A Book for Free Spirits, Part 1 Complete Works, Volume Six

By Friedrich Nietzsche

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...(Images generously made available by the Hathi Trust.)





HUMAN

ALL-TOO-HUMAN

_A BOOK FOR FREE SPIRITS_

PART I

By

FRIEDRICH NIETZSCHE


TRANSLATED BY

HELEN...

Page 1

...I see things
which are only--human alas! all-too-human!' I know man _better_--the
term 'free spirit' must here...

Page 2

...proclaim the establishment of equal rights:

so far a socialistic mode of...

Page 3

... ...

Page 4

...at a time when I had become sufficiently clear-sighted about
morality; also for deceiving myself about...

Page 5

...hand which
led them, to the sanctuary where they learnt to adore,--their most
exalted moments themselves will...

Page 6

...the deceived, are we not thereby also deceivers? _Must_ we
not also be deceivers?"--Such thoughts lead...

Page 7

...is still; where has
he been? The near and nearest things, how changed they appear to
him!...

Page 8

...the amount of stupidity which opposite
values involve, and all the intellectual loss with which every...

Page 9

...lower place,
an under-us, an immeasurably long order, a hierarchy which we _see;_
here--_our_ problem!"


8.

No psychologist or...

Page 10

...this explanation, strictly understood, there is neither
an unegoistical action nor an entirely disinterested point of...

Page 11

...with it the virtue of diffidence.


3.

APPRECIATION OF UNPRETENTIOUS TRUTHS.--It is a mark of a higher
culture...

Page 12

...deceives himself, because
those things enrapture him so profoundly, and make him so profoundly
unhappy, and he...

Page 13

...in the Socratic
schools; the veins of scientific investigation were bound up by the
point of view...

Page 14

...here, with religion, art,
and morals we do not touch the "essence of the world in...

Page 15

...and even at
the present day travellers are accustomed to remark how prone the
savage is to...

Page 16

...the dreamer is
always so mistaken, while the same mind when awake is accustomed to be
so...

Page 17

...happens with extraordinary rapidity, so that here,
as with the conjuror, a confusion of judgment may...

Page 18

...in order to come to
a conclusion about the being that produced the picture: about the
thing-in-itself,...

Page 19

...with each other, and are now inherited by us as the
accumulated treasure of all the...

Page 20

..._the sensation of the pleasant or the painful_ in
relation to the _sentient subject._ A new...

Page 21

...contradictions. In all
scientific determinations we always reckon inevitably with certain
false quantities, but as these quantities...

Page 22

...turn round the end of the course.


21.

CONJECTURAL VICTORY OF SCEPTICISM.--For once let the sceptical
starting-point be...

Page 23

...ages still operates too
strongly, because the two ages still stand too closely together;
the individual man...

Page 24

...create
better conditions for the rise of human beings, for their nourishment,
education and instruction; they can...

Page 25

...Luther's
Reformation bears witness to the fact that in his century all the
movements of the freedom...

Page 26

...employed to relieve the mind overburdened
with emotions; for those notions receive much less support from...

Page 27

...us the essence
of the world would give us all the most disagreeable disillusionment.
Not the world...

Page 28

...formed out of it; and thirdly, in the fact that every
separate element of the material...

Page 29

...self-seeking and
self-affirming, and does not step out of himself like those exceptions;
everything extra-personal is imperceptible...

Page 30

...a theoretical result, a philosophy
of dissolution, disintegration, and self-destruction? I believe that
the decision with regard...

Page 31

...feel a little better: all this
was believed, was known in former centuries. Why was it...

Page 32

...enthusiasm, and turns with disgust from a
suspicious examination of the motives for their actions, it...

Page 33

...turn a deaf ear
to scorn. And this is also true,--numberless single observations on
the human and...

Page 34

...sake of their health, should not
we, the more _intellectual_ people of this age, that grows...

Page 35

...but with regard to nature;
liberty, therefore, to _be_ thus or otherwise, not to _act_ thus...

Page 36

...to imagine a man of eighty thousand
years, one would have in him an absolutely changeable...

Page 37

...shown himself powerless, and
would have been reckoned as such ever after. Therefore every society of
the...

Page 38

...soil of the
_ruling_ tribes and castes.


46.

SYMPATHY STRONGER THAN SUFFERING.--There are cases when sympathy is
stronger than...

Page 39

...all those moments of comfort in which every day is
rich, even in the most harried...

Page 40

...means of healing. But are there many honest people who
will admit that it is pleasing...

Page 41

...in the truth of everything that is visibly,
strongly believed in.


53.

THE NOMINAL DEGREES OF TRUTH.--One of...

Page 42

...unselfishness with hard words of truth, and to
say, "Thyself deceived, deceive not others!" Only the...

Page 43

...die on the field of battle for his victorious fatherland; for his
loftiest desires triumph in...

Page 44

...considers the
two cases as equal; usually the former case is regarded as the worse
(because of...

Page 45

...the exhibition of
physical savageness and the inspiring of fear. That cold glance which
exalted persons employ...

Page 46

...the latter? Is it not visibly more
stupid than justice? Certainly, but precisely for that reason...

Page 47

...IN SPITE OF HIMSELF.--There was a man belonging to a party
who was too nervous and...

Page 48

...decline, to await his slow exhaustion and extinction than with
full consciousness to set a limit...

Page 49

...these cases cause and effect are
surrounded by entirely different groups of feelings and thoughts; yet
one...

Page 50

...people
do not wish to please others so much as themselves, and that they go
so far...

Page 51

...a greater power, as a besieged town for instance, the
counter-condition is that one can destroy...

Page 52

...action now best illustrates
the present idea of morality, as utility for the mass? To make...

Page 53

...a generation, an association, a people;
every superstitious custom that has arisen on account of some...

Page 54

...of his relations with other men, man
obtains a new species of _pleasure_ in addition to...

Page 55

...original founders of States, who
subdue the weaker to themselves. They have the right to do...

Page 56

...an action following and resulting from his
convictions, and in the same way the Inquisition had...

Page 57

...all evil actions committed by men against men, we
are desirous of obtaining pleasure or avoiding...

Page 58

...to preserve or defend themselves,
to prevent personal injury; they lie where cunning and dissimulation
are the...

Page 59

...and
others, to provide a motive for subsequent actions; words of praise are
flung to the runners...

Page 60

...mankind. He can
admire strength, beauty, abundance, in themselves; but must find no
merit therein,--the chemical progress...

Page 61

...necessity--so says the
new knowledge, and this knowledge itself is necessity. Everything is
innocence, and knowledge is...

Page 62

...worse still
for the priests, for they have hitherto lived on the narcotisation of
human woes.


109.

SORROW IS...

Page 63

...the
very deepest, understanding of the world was ascribed to them; which
science has only to strip...

Page 64

...inherited power of that
"metaphysical need," they developed doctrinal opinions which really
bore a great resemblance to...

Page 65

...the older Greeks, that
is, in a very late phase of humanity, in the conception of...

Page 66

...he inquires
anxiously;--is there, then, no means of making those powers as regular
through tradition and law...

Page 67

...can use the most direct compulsion against him
(through refusal of sacrificial food, scourging, binding in...

Page 68

...of the _obscene,_ with the religious
feeling. The sensation of the possibility of this mixture vanishes,...

Page 69

...mire;
then into the feeling of absolute depravity it suddenly threw the light
of divine mercy, so...

Page 70

...disciples.


119.

THE FATE OF CHRISTIANITY.--Christianity arose for the purpose of
lightening the heart; but now it must...

Page 71

...by which in later times the
great artists of the Renaissance distinguished themselves, as also did
Shakespeare...

Page 72

...was then cultivated on a large scale as it germinated, grew
up and blossomed.


131.

THE PAINFUL CONSEQUENCES...

Page 73

...Schleiermacher, gives us reason to suppose) the preservation
of the Christian religion and the continuance of...

Page 74

...dark and
hateful to him, and that that mirror was _his_ work, the very imperfect
work of...

Page 75

...is like Don Quixote, who under-valued his own bravery
because his head was full of the...

Page 76

...and the prologue to redemption, is
actually self-forgiveness, self-redemption.


135.

Therefore: A certain false psychology, a certain kind...

Page 77

...man climbs dangerous
paths up the highest mountains in order that he may laugh to scorn...

Page 78

...affection
and the understanding of their deed vanish. Therefore, at bottom even
those actions of self-denial are...

Page 79

...himself as a battlefield upon which good and evil
spirits strive with alternating success. It is...

Page 80

...falling
of the scales of pride and humility sustained their brooding minds as
well as the alternations...

Page 81

...a new species of stimulants for life. They
presented themselves before the public eye, not exactly...

Page 82

...kind of delight that he covets, perhaps
that delight in which all others are united. Novalis,...

Page 83

...of God--he reached that same goal,
that feeling of complete sinlessness, complete irresponsibility, which
every one can...

Page 84

...that it may believe in
the sudden appearance of the perfect. It is the business of...

Page 85

...and of necessity _epigoni._ There are, however, certain
drawbacks to their means of lightening life,--they appease...

Page 86

...stones and humanising of beasts, have
perhaps been best achieved precisely by that art.


153.

ART MAKES HEAVY...

Page 87

...circumstances become a great
improvisatore; but artistic improvisation ranks low in comparison with
serious and laboriously chosen...

Page 88

...all who _talk_ of feeling sensations of this kind?


158.

THE DESTINY OF GREATNESS.--Every great phenomenon is...

Page 89

...man is something absolutely
_necessary_ (even in those so-called contradictions), but we do not
always recognise this...

Page 90

...persuade ourselves that the faculty for
doing this is quite extraordinarily wonderful, a very rare case,...

Page 91

...is conscious
of them likes to speak. They all had that thorough earnestness for work
which learns...

Page 92

...mankind and the world. So long as there are still
believers in miracles in the world...

Page 93

...frenzy frequently exert the virtue of
remedies which are poisons in themselves; but in every "genius"...

Page 94

...cannot rise up to that height and finally sinks discontentedly
deeper. For when the artist no...

Page 95

...of art exaggerate; if they are artists they
do so _in majorem artis gloriam,_ if they...

Page 96

...only at one point at the most.


176.

SHAKESPEARE AS A MORALIST.--Shakespeare meditated much on the passions,
and...

Page 97

...and laughter of the masses, is for him a
key to hidden treasures; for them, however,...

Page 98

...The higher stage of culture,
which is under the sway (though not under the tyranny) of...

Page 99

...a sigh, for much
has been sacrificed to it. Does not the same thing happen to...

Page 100

...in art, whilst all other occupations
aimed only at the acquirement of knowledge. It is a...

Page 101

...be discovered. The poet anticipates something of the
thinker's pleasure in the discovery of a leading...

Page 102

...a great
deal. There is a human species higher even than wie "productive" man.


211.

ACHILLES AND HOMER.--It...

Page 103

...But
wherever there is laughter in the world this is the case: it may even
be said...

Page 104

...intellect only in
an age which had conquered for musical symbolism the entire range of
inner life....

Page 105

...were
our ancestors. As a matter of fact, all our senses have been somewhat
blunted, because they...

Page 106

...kind of mother's milk of culture
since our first moment of life. Everything in a Greek...

Page 107

...all ages have
exalted and divinely transfigured precisely those ideas which we now
recognise as false; they...

Page 108

...German example and made a spring into a sort of
Rousseau-like state of nature and experiments....

Page 109

...fetters of Franco-Greek art have been
thrown off, but unconsciously we have grown accustomed to consider...

Page 110

...and rendered mythical almost to
the point of invisibility; contemporary feeling and the problems of
contemporary society...

Page 111

...youth and
celebrate festivals of memory, so in a short time mankind will stand
towards art: its...

Page 112

...on the stable
element of the community. Precisely in this sore and weakened place the
community is...

Page 113

...to this.


225.

FREE-THINKER A RELATIVE TERM.--We call that man a free-thinker who
thinks otherwise than is expected...

Page 114

...to bring
forward his reasons against bigamy and then it will be seen whether his
holy zeal...

Page 115

...of action; his intellect is
fettered and restricted, because in a given case it shows him,...

Page 116

...RISE OF GENIUS.--The ingenuity with which a prisoner seeks the
means of freedom, the most cold-blooded...

Page 117

...life and
culture that is bounded by religion. Perhaps even the type of the
saint is only...

Page 118

...eventual appearance of the
highest intellect; at least, he will not advance the founding of the
"perfect...

Page 119

...Italian Renaissance contained within
itself all the positive forces to which we owe modern culture. Such
were...

Page 120

...This Deity is unveiled ever more and
more throughout the changes and fortunes of mankind; it...

Page 121

...thoughtless selfishness so surely that I could only be
called an evil, demoniacal being but its...

Page 122

...betraying them,--in short, a good physician now has
need of all the artifices and artistic privileges...

Page 123

...those furrowed basins which
once contained glaciers, will hardly deem it possible that a time
will come...

Page 124

...ancestors. He thinks of their origin with grief and is
often ashamed, often irritable. The whole...

Page 125

...inhabits these old dwellings often
serves only to make them more uncertain and frightened. In them...

Page 126

...is given,
where no one would look for it, in a passage of my parenetic work
on...

Page 127

...national
life is so rich.


256.

ACTION AND NOT KNOWLEDGE EXERCISED BY SCIENCE.--The value of strictly
pursuing science for...

Page 128

...The higher the light in which
this relation was regarded, the lower sank intercourse with woman;
nothing...

Page 129

...themselves and their "truth," and with it they
overthrew all their neighbours and predecessors; each one...

Page 130

...went rapidly forward, but equally
rapidly downwards; the movement of the whole machine is so intensified
that...

Page 131

...henceforth this supremacy lies in the
hands of the _oligarchs of the mind._ In spite of...

Page 132

...often
insignificant truth that is the fruit which he knows how to shake down
from the tree...

Page 133

...the
constant recurrence in their language of ideas, artistic expressions,
methods and allusions which the young people...

Page 134

...to such an extent that he anticipates the
common views of the next decade. He possesses...

Page 135

...get through almost more than four generations in
succession would be capable of; but then they...

Page 136

...phases artificially.
Historical studies form the qualification for this painting, for they
constantly incite us in regard...

Page 137

...regard it as impossible for him to end
this contradiction by the destruction of one and...

Page 138

...the help of painting we
should make it quite clear to ourselves what idealising means. The
painter...

Page 139

...is looked upon almost as a kind of
madness; the free spirit is brought into disrepute,...

Page 140

...active, that is, the restless,
been of _more_ importance. One of the necessary corrections, therefore,
which must...

Page 141

...a dweller in towns; he has no happiness and confers no
happiness.


291.

PRUDENCE OF THE FREE SPIRITS.--Free-thinkers,...

Page 142

...later ages will perhaps be obliged to
forego. Do not despise the fact of having been...

Page 143

...intended by Nature. Then it is time, and no cause for anger, that
the mists of...

Page 144

...dangerous physicians are those
who, like born actors, imitate the born physician with the perfect art
of...

Page 145

...nothing to occupy them, they are superfluous, they
do not feel themselves in possession of their...

Page 146

...AT THE GOODWILL OF OTHERS.--We are mistaken as to the
extent to which we think we...

Page 147

...with children.


343.

THE NARRATOR.--He who gives an account of something readily betrays
whether it is because the...

Page 148

...natural attitude of our own which appears more
intentional, more distinct, and perhaps somewhat exaggerated.


350.

AN ARTIFICE.--He...

Page 149

...a
person prefers to live in dependence at the expense of others, usually
with a secret bitterness...

Page 150

...opponents by it.


363.

CURIOSITY.--If curiosity did not exist, very little would be done for
the good of...

Page 151

...same
impulse in the presence of something lower. Now there is quite another
type of men, who...

Page 152

...the interests of all the courtiers; for otherwise
the prince's indignation would vent itself on them...

Page 153

...counsel, in acknowledgment of
faults, in sympathy for others,--and all these fine things arouse
aversion when the...

Page 154

...make what you will of it!" That
is the reason why clever ladies usually leave a...

Page 155

...exclaimed, "Friends, there are no
friends!" Much rather will he make the confession to himself:--Yes,
there are...

Page 156

...JEALOUSY.--Mothers are readily jealous of the friends
of sons who are particularly successful. As a rule...

Page 157

...distinguished before others.


402.

THE TEST OF A GOOD MARRIAGE.--The goodness of a marriage is proved by
the...

Page 158

...under such circumstances, they
favour the lover.


411.

THE FEMININE INTELLECT.--The intellect of women manifests itself as
perfect mastery,...

Page 159

...(which every man and
every party possess), and pouncing upon them: for which purpose their
dagger-pointed intelligence...

Page 160

...two persons in love is usually the one
who loves, the other the one who is...

Page 161

...father addicted to feigning and falsehood,
or living, like Lord Byron, in constant warfare with a...

Page 162

...Athens in the time
of Pericles; the men, whose wives were then little more to them...

Page 163

...hated, and _vice versa._ Indeed, it must not be
a thing impossible for him to sow...

Page 164

...might not
strike his foot against them--when he has gone out for the very purpose
of striking...

Page 165

...his mission the widest knowledge and estimation of
universal existence, burdens himself with personal considerations for...

Page 166

...their narrow-mindedness does not go so far as to demand
that _everything_ shall become politics in...

Page 167

...olden time; but where are there still
ears to hear it?


440.

OF GOOD BLOOD.--That which men and...

Page 168

...hope when we
believe that we and our equals have more strength in heart and head
than...

Page 169

...extent. He usually
expresses _his_ opinion, but sometimes also does _not_ express it
in order to serve...

Page 170

...reason in history (from whence, to be sure, it also derives
its admixture of folly, without...

Page 171

...another their ancestors have been
possessors. Not forcible new distributions, but gradual transformations
of opinion are necessary;...

Page 172

...in
all institutions and the changes thereof. The development of higher
morality depends on a person's having...

Page 173

...of the former.


459.

ARBITRARY LAW NECESSARY.--Jurists dispute whether the most perfectly
thought-out law or that which is...

Page 174

...this
veneration of Gods and Princes. Wherever an effort is made to exalt
particular men to the...

Page 175

...the same reason that in large kitchens the
cooking is at best only mediocre.


468.

INNOCENT CORRUPTION.--In all...

Page 176

...high_
(a conception in which divine and human modes of government usually
coalesce); thus internal civil peace...

Page 177

...religion was
made a private affair. The spectacle of strife, and the hostile laying
bare of all...

Page 178

...it by a new power, a newly-formed majority. Finally--it may
be confidently asserted--the distrust of all...

Page 179

...and feebler. In the same way a
later generation will also see the State become meaningless...

Page 180

...as possible_," the shout at first becomes
louder than ever,--but soon the opposition cry also breaks...

Page 181

...and labour actively for the amalgamation of nations; in
which efforts Germans may assist by virtue...

Page 182

...moreover, which--presumedly--concerned
man's highest interests; in comparison therewith the aims of the States
and nations which modern...

Page 183

...industrious because
of acquisitiveness but because of the constant needs of others. The
smith is industrious because...

Page 184

...effect; in the former they hate and envy the better
social caste, which is more favourably...

Page 185

...the total (which indeed only
manifests itself as the fear of the new Colossus in other...

Page 186

...distrust, and therefore contains precisely
that upon which money-grabbing and successful men take a pleasure in
walking...

Page 187

...consoled.


511.

PERSONS LOYAL TO THEIR CONVICTIONS.--Whoever is very busy retains his
general views and opinions almost unchanged....

Page 188

...himself,--another sticks to it
because he has learnt it with difficulty and is proud of having
understood...

Page 189

...his face but also his body acquires a sage look.


544.

SEEING BADLY AND HEARING BADLY.--The man...

Page 190

...has no occasion for envy.


560.

DANGER IN MANIFOLDNESS.--With one talent more we often stand less
firmly than...

Page 191

...inward confidence in his prophetic gift. We give credence to
the marvellous and irrational when it...

Page 192

...around us. Love, the Spring, every
fine melody, the mountains, the moon, the sea--all speak but...

Page 193

...will find
some happiness springing up beside the evil--and in fact always the
more happiness the more...

Page 194

...such. And are not almost all publicly avowed motives of
action just such spurious mothers?


597.

PASSION AND...

Page 195

...no
opportunity for the exercise of these feelings our soul becomes dried
up, and even incapable of...

Page 196

...any more than a man who, according
to Buddha's rule, hides his good qualities from people...

Page 197

...satiated with play, and has no
new necessities impelling him to work, is sometimes attacked by...

Page 198

...fellow-competitors and
neighbours, violent and enraged at divergent opinions, shows that he
belongs to an earlier grade...

Page 199

...life--it is mostly called being philosophically minded. But for
the acquisition of knowledge it may be...

Page 200

...eventually having
presence of mind on the arrival thereof.


624.

INTERCOURSE WITH THE HIGHER SELF.--Every one has his...

Page 201

...than our times. How
seldom one now meets with any one who can live on so...

Page 202

...heart to a
prince, a party, a woman, a priestly order, an artist, or a thinker,
in...

Page 203

...in the age of theoretical innocence, and is practically
a child, however grown-up he may be....

Page 204

...results furnish no ground
for condemnation of the course of the development of human reason.
The scientific...

Page 205

...that the Church _possessed_ truth
and had to preserve it at all costs, and at any...

Page 206

...imagine the matter is thereby settled. To have
an opinion is with them equivalent to immediately...

Page 207

...congelation by
constant change; and if he is altogether a thinking snowball, he will
not have opinions...

Page 208

...mornings of other lands and days, when
already in the grey of the dawn he sees...

Page 209

... Joyous,...

Page 210

... Though of...