By Friedrich Nietzsche

Page 6

alle Welt ihn nöthig hatte, - sein Mittel,
seine Kur, seinen Personal-Kunstgriff der Selbst-Erhaltung... Überall
waren die Instinkte in Anarchie; überall war man fünf Schritt weit vom
Excess: das monstrum in animo war die allgemeine Gefahr. "Die Triebe
wollen den Tyrannen machen; man muss einen Gegentyrannen erfinden, der
stärker ist"... Als jener Physiognomiker dem Sokrates enthüllt hatte,
wer er war, eine Höhle aller schlimmen Begierden, liess der grosse
Ironiker noch ein Wort verlauten, das den Schlüssel zu ihm giebt.
"Dies ist wahr, sagte er, aber ich wurde über alle Herr." Wie wurde
Sokrates über sich Herr? - Sein Fall war im Grunde nur der extreme
Fall, nur der in die Augen springendste von dem, was damals die
allgemeine Noth zu werden anfieng: dass Niemand mehr über sich Herr
war, dass die Instinkte sich gegen einander wendeten. Er fascinirte
als dieser extreme Fall - seine furchteinflössende Hässlichkeit sprach
ihn für jedes Auge aus: er fascinirte, wie sich von selbst versteht,
noch stärker als Antwort, als Lösung, als Anschein der Kur dieses
Falls. -


Wenn man nöthig hat, aus der Vernunft einen Tyrannen zu machen, wie
Sokrates es that, so muss die Gefahr nicht klein sein, dass etwas
Andres den Tyrannen macht. Die Vernünftigkeit wurde damals errathen
als Retterin, es stand weder Sokrates, noch seinen "Kranken" frei,
vernünftig zu sein, - es war de rigueur, es war ihr letztes Mittel.
Der Fanatismus, mit dem sich das ganze griechische Nachdenken
auf die Vernünftigkeit wirft, verräth eine Nothlage: man war in
Gefahr, man hatte nur Eine Wahl: entweder zu Grunde zu gehn oder
- absurd-vernünftig zu sein... Der Moralismus der griechischen
Philosophen von Plato ab ist pathologisch bedingt; ebenso ihre
Schätzung der Dialektik. Vernunft = Tugend = Glück heisst bloss: man
muss es dem Sokrates nachmachen und gegen die dunklen Begehrungen ein
Tageslicht in Permanenz herstellen - das Tageslicht der Vernunft. Man
muss klug, klar, hell um jeden Preis sein: jedes Nachgeben an die
Instinkte, an's Unbewusste führt hinab...


Ich habe zu verstehn gegeben, womit Sokrates fascinirte: er schien
ein Arzt, ein Heiland zu sein. Ist es nöthig, noch den Irrthum
aufzuzeigen, der in seinem Glauben an die "Vernünftigkeit um jeden
Preis" lag? - Es ist ein Selbstbetrug seitens der Philosophen und
Moralisten, damit schon aus der décadence herauszutreten, dass sie
gegen dieselbe Krieg machen. Das Heraustreten steht ausserhalb ihrer
Kraft: was sie als Mittel, als Rettung wählen, ist selbst nur wieder
ein Ausdruck der décadence - sie verändern deren Ausdruck, sie
schaffen sie selbst nicht weg. Sokrates war ein Missverständniss;
die ganze Besserungs-Moral, auch die christliche, war ein
Missverständniss... Das grellste Tageslicht, die Vernünftigkeit um
jeden Preis, das Leben hell, kalt, vorsichtig, bewusst, ohne Instinkt,
im Widerstand

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Text Comparison with The Genealogy of Morals The Complete Works, Volume Thirteen, edited by Dr. Oscar Levy.

Page 9
The utility of altruistic conduct has presumably been the origin of its being praised, and this origin has become _forgotten_:--But in what conceivable way is this forgetting _possible_! Has perchance the utility of such conduct ceased at some given moment? The contrary is the case.
Page 11
In the Latin _malus_ (which I place side by side with μέλας) the vulgar man can be distinguished as the dark-coloured, and above all as the black-haired ("_hic niger est_"), as the pre-Aryan inhabitants of the Italian soil, whose complexion formed the clearest feature of distinction from the dominant blondes, namely, the Aryan conquering race:--at any rate Gaelic has afforded me the exact analogue--_Fin_ (for instance, in the name Fin-Gal), the distinctive word of the nobility, finally--good, noble, clean, but originally the blonde-haired man in contrast to the dark black-haired aboriginals.
Page 14
It was the Jews who, in opposition to the aristocratic equation (good = aristocratic = beautiful = happy = loved by the gods), dared with a terrifying logic to suggest the contrary equation, and indeed to maintain with the teeth of the most profound hatred (the hatred of weakness) this contrary equation, namely, "the wretched are alone the good; the poor, the weak, the lowly, are alone the good; the suffering, the needy, the sick, the loathsome, are the only ones who are pious, the only ones who are blessed, for them alone is salvation--but you, on the other hand, you aristocrats, you men of power, you are to all eternity the evil, the horrible, the covetous, the insatiate, the.
Page 16
with slowness, that Israel himself must repudiate before all the world the actual instrument of his own revenge and nail it to the cross, so that all the world--that is, all the enemies of Israel--could nibble without suspicion at this very bait? Could, moreover, any human mind with all its elaborate ingenuity invent a bait that was more truly _dangerous_? Anything that was even equivalent in the power of its seductive, intoxicating, defiling, and corrupting influence to that symbol of the holy cross, to that awful paradox of a "god on the cross," to that mystery of the unthinkable, supreme, and utter horror of the self-crucifixion of a god for the _salvation of man_? It is at least certain that _sub hoc signo_ Israel, with its revenge and transvaluation of all values, has up to the present always triumphed again over all other ideals, over all more aristocratic ideals.
Page 20
It is the aristocratic races who have left the idea "Barbarian" on all the tracks in which they have marched; nay, a consciousness of this very barbarianism, and even a pride in it, manifests itself even in their highest civilisation (for example, when Pericles says to his Athenians in that celebrated funeral oration, "Our audacity has forced a way over every land and sea, rearing everywhere imperishable memorials of itself for _good_ and for _evil_").
Page 25
It is a cautious, spiteful, gentle whispering and muttering together in all the corners and crannies.
Page 33
The proud knowledge of the extraordinary.
Page 34
It might even be said that wherever solemnity, seriousness, mystery, and gloomy colours are now found in the life of the men and of nations of the world, there is some _survival_ of that horror which was once the universal concomitant of all promises, pledges, and obligations.
Page 42
Making prices, assessing values, thinking out equivalents, exchanging--all this preoccupied the primal thoughts of man to such an extent that in a certain sense it constituted _thinking_ itself: it was here that was trained the oldest form of sagacity, it was here in this sphere that we can perhaps trace the first commencement of man's pride, of his feeling of superiority over other animals.
Page 43
His eye was now focussed to this perspective; and with that ponderous consistency characteristic of ancient thought, which, though set in motion with difficulty, yet proceeds inflexibly along the line on which it has started, man soon arrived at the great generalisation, "everything has its price, _all_ can be paid for," the oldest and most naive moral canon of _justice_, the beginning of all "kindness," of all "equity," of all "goodwill," of all "objectivity" in the world.
Page 53
I regard the bad conscience as the serious illness which man was bound to contract under the stress of the most radical change which he has ever experienced--that change, when he found himself finally imprisoned within the.
Page 55
It is primarily involved in this hypothesis of the origin of the bad conscience, that that alteration was no gradual and no voluntary alteration, and that it did not manifest itself as an organic adaptation to new conditions, but as a break, a jump, a necessity, an inevitable fate, against which there was no resistance and never a spark of resentment.
Page 63
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Page 84
To put briefly the facts against its being real: _the ascetic ideal springs from the prophylactic and self-preservative instincts which mark a decadent life_, which seeks by every means in its power to maintain its position and fight for its existence; it points to a partial physiological depression and exhaustion, against which the most profound and intact life-instincts fight ceaselessly with new weapons and discoveries.
Page 85
Is that done? The sick are the greatest danger for the healthy; it is not from the strongest that harm comes to the strong, but from the weakest.
Page 107
And now look at the other side, at those rare cases, of which I spoke, the most supreme idealists to be found nowadays among philosophers and scholars.
Page 112
Since Copernicus man seems to have fallen on to a steep plane--he rolls faster and faster away from the centre--whither? into nothingness? into the "thrilling sensation of his own nothingness"--Well! this would be the straight way--to the old ideal?--All science (and by no means only astronomy, with regard to the humiliating and deteriorating effect of which Kant has made a remarkable confession, "it annihilates my own importance"), all science, natural as much as _unnatural_--by unnatural I mean the self-critique of reason--nowadays sets out to talk man out of his present opinion of himself, as though that opinion had been nothing but a bizarre piece of conceit; you might go so far as to say that science finds its peculiar pride, its peculiar bitter form of stoical ataraxia, in preserving man's _contempt of himself_, that state which it took so much trouble to bring about, as man's final and most serious claim to self-appreciation (rightly so, in point of fact, for he who despises is always "one who has not forgotten how to appreciate").
Page 116
Unqualified honest atheism (and its air only do we breathe, we, the most intellectual men of this age) is _not_ opposed to that ideal, to the extent that it appears to be; it is rather one of the final phases of its evolution, one of its syllogisms and pieces of inherent logic--it is the awe-inspiring catastrophe of a two-thousand-year training in truth, which finally forbids itself _the lie of the belief in God_.
Page 121
A larger number of the higher and better-endowed men will, I hope, have in the end so much self-restraint as to be able to get rid of their bad taste for affectation and sentimental darkness, and to turn against Richard Wagner as much as against Schopenhauer.