By Friedrich Nietzsche

Page 49

Gebirge her oder aus den Abenteuern
des Meeres kommt, nothwendig zum Verbrecher entartet. Oder beinahe
nothwendig: denn es giebt Fälle, wo ein solcher Mensch sich stärker
erweist als die Gesellschaft: der Corse Napoleon ist der berühmteste
Fall. Für das Problem, das hier vorliegt, ist das Zeugniss
Dostoiewsky's von Belang - Dostoiewsky's, des einzigen Psychologen,
anbei gesagt, von dem ich Etwas zu lernen hatte: er gehört zu den
schönsten Glücksfällen meines Lebens, mehr selbst noch als die
Entdeckung Stendhal's. Dieser tiefe Mensch, der zehn Mal Recht hatte,
die oberflächlichen Deutschen gering zu schätzen, hat die sibirischen
Zuchthäusler, in deren Mitte er lange lebte, lauter schwere
Verbrecher, für die es keinen Rückweg zur Gesellschaft mehr gab,
sehr anders empfunden als er selbst erwartete - ungefähr als aus
dem besten, härtesten und werthvollsten Holze geschnitzt, das auf
russischer Erde überhaupt wächst. Verallgemeinern wir den Fall des
Verbrechers: denken wir uns Naturen, denen, aus irgend einem Grunde,
die öffentliche Zustimmung fehlt, die wissen, dass sie nicht als
wohlthätig, als nützlich empfunden werden, - jenes Tschandala-Gefühl,
dass man nicht als gleich gilt, sondern als ausgestossen, unwürdig,
verunreinigend. Alle solche Naturen haben die Farbe des Unterirdischen
auf Gedanken und Handlungen; an ihnen wird Jegliches bleicher als
an Solchen, auf deren Dasein das Tageslicht ruht. Aber fast alle
Existenzformen, die wir heute auszeichnen, haben ehemals unter dieser
halben Grabesluft gelebt: der wissenschaftliche Charakter, der Artist,
das Genie, der freie Geist, der Schauspieler, der Kaufmann, der grosse
Entdecker... So lange der Priester als oberster Typus galt, war jede
werthvolle Art Mensch entwerthet... Die Zeit kommt - ich verspreche
das - wo er als der niedrigste gelten wird, als unser Tschandala, als
die verlogenste, als die unanständigste Art Mensch... Ich richte die
Aufmerksamkeit darauf, wie noch jetzt, unter dem mildesten Regiment
der Sitte, das je auf Erden, zum Mindesten in Europa, geherrscht
hat, jede Abseitigkeit, jedes lange, allzulange Unterhalb, jede
ungewöhnliche, undurchsichtige Daseinsform jenem Typus nahe bringt,
den der Verbrecher vollendet. Alle Neuerer des Geistes haben eine Zeit
das fahle und fatalistische Zeichen des Tschandala auf der Stirn:
nicht, weil sie so empfunden würden, sondern weil sie selbst die
furchtbare Kluft fühlen, die sie von allem Herkömmlichen und in Ehren
Stehenden trennt. Fast jedes Genie kennt als eine seiner Entwicklungen
die "catilinarische Existenz", ein Hass-, Rache- und Aufstands-Gefühl
gegen Alles, was schon ist, was nicht mehr wird... Catilina - die
Präexistenz-Form jedes Caesar. -


Hier ist die Aussicht frei. - Es kann Höhe der Seele sein, wenn ein
Philosoph schweigt; es kann Liebe sein, wenn er sich widerspricht; es
ist eine Höflichkeit des Erkennenden möglich, welche lügt. Man hat
nicht ohne Feinheit gesagt: il est indigne des grands coeurs de
répandre le trouble, qu'ils

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Text Comparison with The Birth of Tragedy; or, Hellenism and Pessimism

Page 15
Here, at any rate--thus much was acknowledged with curiosity as well as with aversion--a _strange_ voice spoke, the disciple of a still "unknown God," who for the time being had hidden himself under the hood of the scholar, under the German's gravity and disinclination for dialectics, even under the bad manners of the Wagnerian; here was a spirit with strange and still nameless needs, a memory bristling with questions, experiences and obscurities, beside which stood the name Dionysos like one more note of interrogation; here spoke--people said to themselves with misgivings--something like a mystic and almost mænadic soul, which, undecided whether it should disclose or conceal itself, stammers with an effort and capriciously as in a strange tongue.
Page 19
Page 24
416: "Just as in a stormy sea, unbounded in every direction, rising and falling with howling mountainous waves, a sailor sits in a boat and trusts in his frail barque: so in the midst of a world of sorrows the individual sits quietly supported by and trusting in his _principium individuationis_.
Page 31
Page 37
,_ his subject, the whole throng of subjective passions and impulses of the will directed to a definite object which appears real to him; if now it seems as if the lyric genius and the allied non-genius were one, and as if the former spoke that little word "I" of his own accord, this appearance will no longer be able to lead us astray, as it certainly led those astray who designated the lyrist as the subjective poet.
Page 53
If this explanation does justice to the poet, it may still be asked whether the substance of the myth is thereby exhausted; and here it turns out that the entire conception of the poet is nothing but the light-picture which healing nature holds up to us after a glance into the abyss.
Page 56
Accordingly crime[11] is understood by the Aryans to be a man, sin[12] by the Semites a woman; as also, the original crime is committed by man, the original sin by woman.
Page 57
It is an indisputable tradition that Greek tragedy in its earliest form had for its theme only the sufferings of Dionysus, and that for some time the only stage-hero therein was simply Dionysus himself.
Page 58
Thus, the former age of the Titans is subsequently brought from Tartarus once more to the light of day.
Page 60
For if it be in accordance with a happy state of things to depart this life without a struggle, leaving behind a fair posterity, the closing period of these older arts exhibits such a happy state of things: slowly they sink out of sight, and before their dying eyes already stand their fairer progeny, who impatiently lift up their heads with courageous mien.
Page 66
It does not depend on the subject-matter of the events here represented; indeed, I venture to assert that it would have been impossible for Goethe in his projected "Nausikaa" to have rendered tragically effective the suicide of the idyllic being with which he intended to complete the fifth act; so extraordinary is the power of the epic-Apollonian representation, that it charms, before our eyes, the most terrible things by the joy in appearance and in redemption through appearance.
Page 77
If now some one proves conclusively that the antipodal goal cannot be attained in this direct way, who will still care to toil on in the old depths, unless he has learned to content himself in the meantime with finding precious stones or discovering natural laws? For that reason Lessing, the most honest theoretical man, ventured to say that he cared more for the search after truth than for truth itself: in saying which he revealed the fundamental secret of science, to the astonishment, and indeed, to the vexation of scientific men.
Page 78
He who once makes intelligible to himself how, after the death of Socrates, the mystagogue of science, one philosophical school succeeds another, like wave upon wave,--how an entirely unfore-shadowed universal development of the thirst for knowledge in the widest compass of the cultured world (and as the specific task for every one highly gifted) led science on to the high sea from which since then it has never again been able to be completely ousted; how through the universality of this movement a common net of thought was first stretched over the entire globe, with prospects, moreover, of conformity to law in an entire solar system;--he who realises all this, together with the amazingly high pyramid of our present-day knowledge, cannot fail to see in Socrates the turning-point and vortex of so-called universal history.
Page 82
Its universality, however, is by no means the empty universality of abstraction, but of quite a different kind, and is united with thorough and distinct definiteness.
Page 83
For melodies are to a certain extent, like general concepts, an abstraction from the actual.
Page 88
than the phenomenon itself: through which poverty it still further reduces even the phenomenon for our consciousness, so that now, for instance, a musically imitated battle of this sort exhausts itself in marches, signal-sounds, etc.
Page 91
While the evil slumbering in the heart of theoretical culture gradually begins to disquiet modern man, and makes him anxiously ransack the stores of his experience for means to avert the danger, though not believing very much in these means; while he, therefore, begins to divine the consequences his position involves: great, universally gifted natures have contrived, with an incredible amount of thought, to make use of the apparatus of science itself, in order to point out the limits and the relativity of knowledge generally, and thus definitely to deny the claim of science to universal validity and universal ends: with which demonstration the illusory notion was for the first time recognised as such, which pretends, with the aid of causality, to be able to fathom the innermost essence of things.
Page 93
Is it credible that this thoroughly externalised operatic music, incapable of devotion, could be received and cherished with enthusiastic favour, as a re-birth, as it were, of all true music, by the very age in which the ineffably sublime and sacred music of Palestrina had originated? And who, on the other hand, would think of making only the diversion-craving luxuriousness of those Florentine circles and the vanity of their dramatic singers responsible for the love of the opera which spread with such rapidity? That in the same age, even among the same people, this passion for a half-musical mode of speech should awaken alongside of the vaulted structure of Palestrine harmonies which the entire Christian Middle Age had been building up, I can explain to myself only by a co-operating _extra-artistic tendency_ in the essence of the recitative.
Page 96
He dreams himself into a time when passion suffices to generate songs and poems: as if emotion had ever been able to create anything artistic.
Page 118
What is most afflicting to all of us, however, is--the prolonged degradation in which the German genius has lived estranged from house and home in the.