By Friedrich Nietzsche

Page 44

liegt mitunter
nicht in dem, was man mit ihr erreicht, sondern in dem, was man
für sie bezahlt, - was sie uns kostet. Ich gebe ein Beispiel. Die
liberalen Institutionen hören alsbald auf, liberal zu sein, sobald
sie erreicht sind: es giebt später keine ärgeren und gründlicheren
Schädiger der Freiheit, als liberale Institutionen. Man weiss ja, was
sie zu Wege bringen: sie unterminiren den Willen zur Macht, sie sind
die zur Moral erhobene Nivellirung von Berg und Tal, sie machen
klein, feige und genüsslich, - mit ihnen triumphirt jedesmal das
Heerdenthier. Liberalismus: auf deutsch Heerden-Verthierung...
Dieselben Institutionen bringen, so lange sie noch erkämpft werden,
ganz andere Wirkungen hervor; sie fördern dann in der That die
Freiheit auf eine mächtige Weise. Genauer zugesehn, ist es der Krieg,
der diese Wirkungen hervorbringt, der Krieg um liberale Institutionen,
der als Krieg die illiberalen Instinkte dauern lässt. Und der Krieg
erzieht zur Freiheit. Denn was ist Freiheit! Dass man den Willen zur
Selbstverantwortlichkeit hat. Dass man die Distanz, die uns abtrennt,
festhält. Dass man gegen Mühsal, Härte, Entbehrung, selbst gegen das
Leben gleichgültiger wird. Dass man bereit ist, seiner Sache Menschen
zu opfern, sich selber nicht abgerechnet. Freiheit bedeutet, dass
die männlichen, die kriegs- und siegsfrohen Instinkte die Herrschaft
haben über andre Instinkte, zum Beispiel über die des "Glücks". Der
freigewordne Mensch, um wie viel mehr der freigewordne Geist, tritt
mit Füssen auf die verächtliche Art von Wohlbefinden, von dem Krämer,
Christen, Kühe, Weiber, Engländer und andre Demokraten träumen. Der
freie Mensch ist Krieger. - Wonach misst sich die Freiheit, bei
Einzelnen, wie bei Völkern? Nach dem Widerstand, der überwunden werden
muss, nach der Mühe, die es kostet, oben zu bleiben. Den höchsten
Typus freier Menschen hätte man dort zu suchen, wo beständig der
höchste Widerstand überwunden wird: fünf Schritt weit von der
Tyrannei, dicht an der Schwelle der Gefahr der Knechtschaft. Dies ist
psychologisch wahr, wenn man hier unter den "Tyrannen" unerbittliche
und furchtbare Instinkte begreift, die das Maximum von Autorität und
Zucht gegen sich herausfordern - schönster Typus Julius Caesar -;
dies ist auch politisch wahr, man mache nur seinen Gang durch die
Geschichte. Die Völker, die Etwas werth waren, werth wurden, wurden
dies nie unter liberalen Institutionen: die grosse Gefahr machte
Etwas aus ihnen, das Ehrfurcht verdient, die Gefahr, die uns unsre
Hülfsmittel, unsre Tugenden, unsre Wehr und Waffen, unsern Geist erst
kennen lehrt, - die uns zwingt, stark zu sein... Erster Grundsatz:
man muss es nöthig haben, stark zu sein: sonst wird man's nie. - Jene
grossen Treibhäuser für starke, für die stärkste Art Mensch, die es
bisher gegeben hat, die aristokratischen Gemeinwesen in der Art von
Rom und Venedig verstanden Freiheit genau

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Text Comparison with On the Future of our Educational Institutions

Page 2
men, working together in the service of a completely rejuvenated and purified culture, may again become the directors of a system of everyday instruction, calculated to promote that culture; and they will probably be compelled once more to draw up sets of rules: but how remote this time now seems! And what may not happen meanwhile! It is just possible that between now and then all _Gymnasia_--yea, and perhaps all universities, may be destroyed, or have become so utterly transformed that their very regulations may, in the eyes of future generations, seem to be but the relics of the cave-dwellers' age.
Page 10
It was, however, with some difficulty that we were able to carry our plans into execution; for, on the very day we had selected for our excursion, the large and lively students' association, which always hindered us in our flights, did their utmost to put obstacles in our way and to hold us back.
Page 15
A number of voices could be heard in the distance--they were those of our fellow-students who by that time must have taken to the Rhine in small boats.
Page 21
Elsewhere the State, in its turn, strives here and there for its own preservation, after the greatest possible expansion of education, because it always feels strong enough to bring the most determined emancipation, resulting from culture, under its yoke, and readily approves.
Page 29
This 'personal doing' is urged on with yet an additional fillip in some public schools by the choice of the subject, the strongest proof of which is, in my opinion, that even in the lower classes the non-pedagogic subject is set, by means of which the pupil is led to give a description of his life and of his development.
Page 41
Just because we take this matter so seriously, we should not take our own poor selves so seriously: at the very moment we are falling some one else will grasp the banner of our faith.
Page 45
Something there immediately assures him that he is destined to be an imitator of AEschylus, and leads him to believe, indeed, that he 'has something in common with' AEschylus: the miserable poetaster! Yet another peers with the suspicious eye of a policeman into every contradiction, even into the shadow of every contradiction, of which Homer was guilty: he fritters away his life in tearing Homeric rags to tatters and sewing them together again, rags that he himself was the first to filch from the poet's kingly robe.
Page 46
All of them, however, with the most widely separated aims in view, dig and burrow in Greek soil with a restlessness and a blundering awkwardness that must surely be painful to a true friend of antiquity: and thus it comes to pass that I should like to take by the hand every talented or talentless man who feels a certain professional inclination urging him on to the study of antiquity, and harangue him as follows: 'Young sir, do you know what perils threaten you, with your little stock of school learning, before you become a man in the full sense of the word? Have you heard that, according to Aristotle, it is by no means a tragic death to be slain by a statue? Does that surprise you? Know, then, that for centuries philologists have been trying, with ever-failing strength, to re-erect the fallen statue of Greek antiquity, but without success; for it is a colossus around which single individual men crawl like pygmies.
Page 50
This is a new and quite original occurrence: the State assumes the attitude of a mystogogue of culture, and, whilst it promotes its own ends, it obliges every one of its servants not to appear in its presence without the torch of universal State education in their hands, by the flickering light of which they may again recognise the State as the highest goal, as the reward of all their strivings after education.
Page 53
It is more and more clearly evident that we have no educational institutions at all; but that we ought to have them.
Page 56
What is lost by this new point of view is not only a poetical phantasmagoria, but the instinctive, true, and unique point of view, instead of which we have shrewd and clever calculations, and, so to speak, overreachings of nature.
Page 63
And if it had been possible for you to take Goethe's friendship away from this melancholy, hasty life, hunted to premature death, then you would have crushed him even sooner than you did.
Page 64
For a few minutes not a word more was spoken.
Page 69
FOOTNOTES: [6] It will be apparent from these words that Nietzsche is still under the influence of Schopenhauer.
Page 74
The student hears.
Page 75
Look at the free student, the herald of self-culture: guess what his instincts are; explain him from his needs! How does his culture appear to you when you measure it by three graduated scales: first, by his need for philosophy; second, by his instinct for art; and third, by Greek and Roman antiquity as the incarnate categorical imperative of all culture? "Man is so much encompassed about by the most serious and difficult problems that, when they are brought to his attention in the right way, he is impelled betimes towards a lasting kind of philosophical wonder, from which alone, as a fruitful soil, a deep and noble culture can grow forth.
Page 77
The universities of the present time consequently give no heed to almost extinct educational predilections like these, and found their philological chairs for the training of new and exclusive generations of philologists, who on their part give similar philological preparation in the public schools--a vicious circle which is useful neither to philologists nor to public schools, but which above all accuses the university for the third time of not being what it so pompously proclaims itself to be--a training ground for culture.
Page 81
He rose with the same aspect of proud indignation as Schiller may have had when reciting the _Robbers_ to his companions: and if he had prefaced his drama with the picture of a lion, and the motto, 'in tyrannos,' his follower himself was that very lion preparing to spring; and every 'tyrant' began to tremble.
Page 82
This eternal hierarchy, towards which all things naturally tend, is always threatened by that pseudo-culture which now sits on the throne of the present.
Page 84