idea of Dionysus. Another consideration leads
to this idea. The psychological problem presented by the type of
Zarathustra is, how can he, who in an unprecedented manner says
no, and _acts_ no, in regard to all that which has been affirmed
hitherto, remain nevertheless a yea-saying spirit? how can he who
bears the heaviest destiny on his shoulders and whose very life-task
is a fatality, yet be the brightest and the most transcendental
of spirits--for Zarathustra is a dancer? how can he who has the
hardest and most terrible grasp of reality, and who has thought the
most "abysmal thoughts," nevertheless avoid conceiving these things
as objections to existence, or even as objections to the eternal
recurrence of existence?--how is it that on the contrary he finds
reasons for _being himself_ the eternal affirmation of all things, "the
tremendous and unlimited saying of Yea and Amen"?... "Into every abyss
do I bear the benediction of my yea to Life." ... But this, once more,
is precisely the idea of Dionysus.
What language will such a spirit speak, when he speaks unto his soul?
The language of the _dithyramb._ I am the inventor of the dithyramb.
Hearken unto the manner in which Zarathustra speaks to his soul _Before
Sunrise_ (iii. 48). Before my time such emerald joys and divine
tenderness had found no tongue. Even the profoundest melancholy of
such a Dionysus takes shape as a dithyramb. As an example of this I
take "The Night-Song,"--the immortal plaint of one who, thanks to his
superabundance of light and power, thanks to the sun within him, is
condemned never to love.
"It is night: now do all gushing springs raise their voices. And my
soul too is a gushing spring.
"It is night: now only do all lovers burst into song. And my soul too
is the song of a lover.
"Something unquenched and unquenchable is within me, that would raise
its voice. A craving for love is within me, which itself speaketh the
language of love.
"Light am I: would that I were night! But this is my loneliness, that I
am begirt with light.
"Alas, why am I not dark and like unto the night! How joyfully would I
then suck at the breasts of light!
"And even you would I bless, ye twinkling starlets and glow-worms on
high! and be blessed in the gifts of your light.
"But in mine own light do I live, ever back into myself do I drink the
flames I send forth.
"I know not the happiness of the hand stretched forth to grasp; and oft
have I dreamt that stealing must be more blessed
_ Edgar Alfred Bowring's Translation.Page 9
Now, however, that I can look upon the stand we had to take against these opposing forces, I cannot help associating them in my mind with those checks we are wont to receive in our dreams, as, for instance, when we imagine we are able to fly and yet feel ourselves held back by some incomprehensible power.Page 10
Frankly speaking, the rules which were drawn up on the formation of the club were never very strictly observed; but owing to the very fact that we had many sins of omission on our conscience during our student-year in Bonn, when we were once more on the banks of the Rhine, we firmly resolved not only to observe our rule, but also to gratify our feelings and our sense of gratitude by reverently visiting that spot near Rolandseck on the day appointed.Page 17
Here are our benches, let us discuss the question exhaustively: I shall not disturb your meditations with regard to how you are to become men of culture.Page 24
On the other hand, that adhesive and tenacious stratum which has now filled up the interstices between the sciences--Journalism--believes it has a mission to fulfil here, and this it does, according to its own particular lights--that is to say, as its name implies, after the fashion of a day-labourer.Page 30
This 'personal doing' is urged on with yet an additional fillip in some public schools by the choice of the subject, the strongest proof of which is, in my opinion, that even in the lower classes the non-pedagogic subject is set, by means of which the pupil is led to give a description of his life and of his development.Page 32
For how could anybody, after having cast one glance at those examples, fail to see the great earnestness with which the Greek and the Roman regarded and treated his language, from his youth onwards--how is it possible to mistake one's example on a point like this one?--provided, of course, that the classical Hellenic and Roman world really did hover before the educational plan of our public schools as the highest and most instructive of all morals--a fact I feel very much inclined to doubt.Page 35
learnt 'walking' in this sense, and in our public schools, as our other writers show, no one learns walking either.Page 43
Then we should meet with a strange disillusionment, one which we, my good friend, have often met with: those blatant heralds of educational needs, when examined at close quarters, are suddenly seen to be transformed into zealous, yea, fanatical opponents of true culture, _i.Page 47
That, however, may be tolerated, for every being must perish by some means or other; but who is there to guarantee that during all these attempts the statue itself will not break in pieces! The philologists are being crushed by the Greeks--perhaps we can put up with this--but antiquity itself threatens to be crushed by these philologists! Think that over, you easy-going young man; and turn back, lest you too should not be an iconoclast!'" "Indeed," said the philosopher, laughing, "there are many philologists who have turned back as you so much desire, and I notice a great contrast with my own youthful experience.Page 71
On the other hand, as I have told you, from the quiet little spot which we had left we could have a better view than from the little plateau on the hillside; and the Rhine, with the island of NonnenwÃ¶rth in the middle, was just visible to the beholder who peered over the tree-tops.Page 80
True, this culture is without the erudition of those establishments, but assumes nevertheless the mien of a sovereign; so that, for example, Gutzkow the novelist might be pointed to as the best example of a modern public school boy turned Ã¦sthete.Page 83
This eternal hierarchy, towards which all things naturally tend, is always threatened by that pseudo-culture which now sits on the throne of the present.Page 85
The reader will remember that these lectures were delivered when Nietzsche was only in his twenty-eighth year.Page 90
The eyes of those critics were tirelessly on the lookout for discrepancies in the language and thoughts of the two poems; but at this time also a history of the Homeric poem and its tradition was prepared, according to which these discrepancies were not due to Homer, but to those who committed his words to writing and those who sang them.Page 94
According to this school, in the place of the gradually decaying popular poetry we have artistic poetry, the work of individual minds, not of masses of people.Page 96
It is, however, by no means affirmed against the poet of these epics that he was merely the imaginary being of an Ã¦sthetic impossibility, which can be the opinion of only very few philologists indeed.Page 97
And I very much doubt whether the majority of those who adopt the first part of the contention have taken the following considerations into account.Page 100
" By this I wish to signify that all philological activities should be enclosed and surrounded by a philosophical view of things, in which everything individual and isolated is evaporated as something detestable, and in which great homogeneous views alone remain.