Early Greek Philosophy & Other Essays Collected Works, Volume Two

By Friedrich Nietzsche

Page 95

. . . . . . . .
What are the causes which have interrupted a flourishing science of
experimental physics in antiquity after Democritus?



7


Anaxagoras has taken from Heraclitus the idea that in every Becoming
and in every Being the opposites are together.

He felt strongly the contradiction that a body has many qualities and
he _pulverised_ it in the belief that he had now dissolved it into
its true qualities.
. . . . . . .
_Plato:_ first Heraclitean, later Sceptic: Everything, even Thinking,
is in a state of flux.

Brought through Socrates to the permanence of the good, the beautiful.

These assumed as entitative.

All generic ideals partake of the idea of the good, the beautiful, and
they too are therefore _entitative_, _being_ (as the soul partakes of
the idea of Life). The idea is _formless_.

Through Pythagoras' metempsychosis has been answered the question: how
we can know anything about the ideas.

Plato's end: scepticism in Parmenides. Refutation of ideology.



8

CONCLUSION


Greek thought during the _tragic age is pessimistic_ or _artistically
optimistic_.

Their judgment about _life_ implies more.

The One, flight from the Becoming. _Aut_ unity, _aut_ artistic play.

Deep distrust of reality: nobody assumes a good god, who has made
everything _optime_.

{Pythagoreans, religious sect.
{Anaximander.
{Empedocles.
Eleates.
{Anaxagoras.
{Heraclitus.
Democritus: the world without moral
and æsthetic meaning, pessimism of
chance.

If one placed a tragedy before all these, the three former would see
in it the mirror of the fatality of existence, Parmenides a transitory
appearance, Heraclitus and Anaxagoras an artistic edifice and image of
the world-laws, Democritus the result of machines.
. . . . . . .

With Socrates _Optimism_ begins, an optimism no longer artistic, with
teleology and faith in the good god; faith in the enlightened good
man. Dissolution of the instincts, Socrates breaks with the hitherto
prevailing _knowledge_ and _culture;_ he intends returning to the old
citizen-virtue and to the State.

Plato dissociates himself from the State, when he observes that the
State has become identical

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Text Comparison with On the Future of our Educational Institutions; Homer and Classical Philology Complete Works, Volume Three

Page 22
the interests of gain; but that amount, at least, is expected from them.
Page 28
g.
Page 31
What does he hold to be most reprehensible in this class of work? What does he call his pupil's attention to?--To all excess in form or thought--that is to say, to all that which, at their age, is essentially characteristic and individual.
Page 34
"Everybody who is in earnest in this matter will have the same sort of experience as the recruit in the army who is compelled to learn walking after having walked almost all his life as a dilettante or empiricist.
Page 35
"Not a suspicion of this possible relationship between our classics and classical education seems to have pierced the antique walls.
Page 43
_ all those who hold fast to the aristocratic nature of the mind; for, at bottom, they regard as their goal the emancipation of the masses from the mastery of the great few; they seek to overthrow the most sacred hierarchy in the kingdom of the intellect--the servitude of the masses, their submissive obedience, their instinct of loyalty to the rule of genius.
Page 44
And, in serious matters of this kind, to hasten forward the progress of the education of the people means simply the postponement of this violent demolition, and the maintenance of that wholesome unconsciousness, that sound sleep, of the people, without which counter-action and remedy no culture, with the exhausting strain and excitement of its own actions, can make any headway.
Page 49
The public schools are certainly the seats of this obesity, if, indeed, they have not degenerated into the abodes of that elegant barbarism which is boasted of as being 'German culture of the present!'" "But," asked the other, "what is to become of that large body of teachers who have not been endowed with a true gift for culture, and who set up as teachers merely to gain a livelihood from the profession, because there is a demand for them, because a superfluity of schools brings with it a superfluity of teachers? Where shall they go when antiquity peremptorily orders them to withdraw? Must they not be sacrificed to those powers of the present who, day after day, call out to them from the never-ending columns of the press 'We are culture! We are education! We are at the zenith! We are the apexes of the pyramids! We are the aims of universal history!'--when they hear the seductive promises, when the shameful signs of non-culture, the plebeian publicity of the so-called 'interests of culture' are extolled for their benefit in magazines and newspapers as an entirely new and the best possible, full-grown form of culture! Whither shall the poor fellows fly when they feel the presentiment that these promises are not true--where but to the most obtuse, sterile scientificality, that here the shriek of culture may no longer be audible to them? Pursued in this way, must they not end, like the ostrich, by burying their heads in the sand? Is it not a real happiness for them, buried as they are among dialects, etymologies, and conjectures, to lead a.
Page 56
The regulations and standards prevailing at such institutions differ from those in a true educational institution; and what in the latter is permitted, and even freely held out as often as possible, ought to be considered as a criminal offence in the former.
Page 59
What with the dog and the men there was a scramble that lasted a few minutes, until my friend began to call out loudly, parodying the philosopher's own words: "In the name of all culture and pseudo-culture, what does the silly dog want with us? Hence, you confounded dog; you uninitiated, never to be initiated; hasten away from us, silent and ashamed!" After this outburst matters were cleared up to some extent, at any rate so far as they could be cleared up in the darkness of the wood.
Page 67
Not a few, even of those whose talents may be of the second or third order, are suited to such co-operation, and only when serving in such an educational establishment as this do they feel that they are truly carrying out their life's task.
Page 69
(_Delivered on the 23rd of March 1872.
Page 71
" The philosopher jumped back.
Page 76
At this age, which, as it were, sees his experiences encircled with metaphysical rainbows, man is, in the highest degree, in need of a guiding hand, because he has suddenly and almost instinctively convinced himself of the ambiguity of existence, and has lost the firm support of the beliefs he has hitherto held.
Page 82
"Think of the _fate_ of the Burschenschaft when I ask you, Did the German university then understand that spirit, as even the German princes in their hatred appear to have understood it? Did the alma mater boldly and resolutely throw her protecting arms round her noble sons and say: 'You must kill me first, before you touch my children?' I hear your answer--by it you may judge whether the German university is an educational institution or not.
Page 86
From the standpoint of the pedagogue, a choice was offered of those elements which were of the greatest educational value; and thus that science, or at least that scientific aim, which we call philology, gradually developed out of the practical calling originated by the exigencies of that science itself.
Page 87
Science has this in common with art, that the most ordinary, everyday thing appears to it as something entirely new and attractive, as if metamorphosed by witchcraft and now seen for the first time.
Page 90
From those times until the generation that produced Friedrich August Wolf we must take a jump over a long historical vacuum; but in our own age we find the argument left just as it was at the time when the power of controversy departed from antiquity, and it is a matter of indifference to us that Wolf accepted as certain tradition what antiquity itself had set up only as a hypothesis.
Page 96
The only path which leads back beyond the time of Pisistratus and helps us to elucidate the meaning of the name Homer, takes its way on the one hand through the reports which have reached us concerning Homer's birthplace: from which we see that, although his name is always associated with heroic epic poems, he is on the other hand no more referred to as the composer of the _Iliad_ and the _Odyssey_ than as the author of the _Thebais_ or any other cyclical epic.
Page 98
All those dull passages and discrepancies--deemed of such importance, but really only subjective, which we usually look upon as the petrified remains of the period of tradition--are not these perhaps merely the almost necessary evils which must fall to the lot of the poet of genius who undertakes a composition virtually without a parallel, and, further, one which proves to be of incalculable difficulty? Let it be noted that the insight into the most diverse operations of the instinctive and the conscious changes the position of the Homeric problem; and in my opinion throws light upon it.