through intellect, and that that which man brings about only
under the guidance of the idea of purpose, must have been brought about
by Nature through reflection and ideas of purpose. (Schopenhauer, "The
World As Will And Idea," vol. ii., Second Book, chap. 26: On Teleology).
Conceived in the manner of Anaxagoras, however, the order and
appropriateness of things on the contrary is nothing but the immediate
result of a blind mechanical motion; and only in order to cause this
motion, in order to get for once out of the dead-rest of the Chaos,
Anaxagoras assumed the free-willed Nous who depends only on Itself.
He appreciated in the Nous just the very quality of being a thing of
chance, a chance agent, therefore of being able to act unconditioned,
undetermined, guided neither by causes nor by purposes.
Notes for a Continuation
(Early Part of 1873)
That this total conception of the Anaxagorean doctrine must be
right, is proved most clearly by the way in which the successors
of Anaxagoras, the Agrigentine Empedocles and the atomic teacher
Democritus in their counter-systems actually criticised and improved
that doctrine. The method of this critique is more than anything a
continued renunciation in that spirit of natural science mentioned
above, the law of economy applied to the interpretation of nature.
That hypothesis, which explains the existing world with the smallest
expenditure of assumptions and means is to have preference: for in such
a hypothesis is to be found the least amount of arbitrariness, and in
it free play with possibilities is prohibited. Should there be two
hypotheses which both explain the world, then a strict test must be
applied as to which of the two better satisfies that demand of economy.
He who can manage this explanation with the simpler and more known
forces, especially the mechanical ones, he who deduces the existing
edifice of the world out of the smallest possible number of forces,
will always be preferred to him who allows the more complicated and
less-known forces, and these moreover in greater number, to carry on a
world-creating play. So then we see Empedocles endeavouring to remove
the _superfluity_ of hypotheses from the doctrine of Anaxagoras.
The first hypothesis which falls as unnecessary is that of the
Anaxagorean Nous, for its assumption is much too complex to explain
anything so simple as motion. After all it is only necessary to explain
the two kinds of motion: the motion of a body towards another, and the
motion away from another.
If our present Becoming is a segregating, although not a complete one,
then Empedocles asks: what prevents complete segregation? Evidently a
force works against
Hamilton & Sons, Miquon, Pa.Page 4
It is in Heraclitus that one finds the germ of his primary view of the universe--a view, to wit, that sees it, not as moral phenomenon, but as mere aesthetic representation.Page 5
In other solemn pronunciamentoes he was credited with being philosophically responsible for various imaginary crimes of the enemy--the wholesale slaughter or mutilation of prisoners of war, the deliberate burning down of Red Cross hospitals, the utilization of the corpses of the slain for soap-making.Page 11
They enjoyed unbroken happiness and perpetual youth.Page 18
--Pity stands in opposition to all the tonic passions that augment the energy of the feeling of aliveness: it is a depressant.Page 19
The Suabians are the best liars in Germany; they lie innocently.Page 21
For the fact that he is able to _compare_ them at all the critic of Christianity is indebted to the scholars of India.Page 30
Christianity aims at mastering _beasts of prey_; its modus operandi is to make them _ill_--to make feeble is the Christian recipe for taming, for "_civilizing_.Page 45
What was formerly merely sickly now becomes indecent--it is indecent to be a Christian today.Page 50
That every man, because he has an "immortal soul," is as good as every.Page 51
To allow "immortality" to every Peter and Paul was the greatest, the most vicious outrage upon _noble_ humanity ever perpetrated.Page 53
Forced, like hypocrites, to be sneaky, to hide in corners, to slink along in the shadows, they convert their necessity into a _duty_: it is on grounds of duty that they account for their lives of humility, and that humility becomes merely one more proof of their piety.Page 56
_--"Thou shall _not_ know":--the rest follows from that.Page 62
What I here mean by philology is, in a general sense, the art of reading with profit--the capacity for absorbing facts _without_ interpreting them falsely, and _without_ losing caution, patience and subtlety in the effort to understand them.Page 64