Early Greek Philosophy & Other Essays Collected Works, Volume Two

By Friedrich Nietzsche

Page 85

the same as about the Indefinite of Anaximander,
as Aristotle does: it could be neither white nor grey, nor black, nor
of any other colour; it was tasteless, scentless, and altogether as a
Whole defined neither quantitatively nor qualitatively: so far goes the
similarity of the Anaximandrian Indefinite and the Anaxagorean Primal
Mixture. But disregarding this negative equality they distinguish
themselves one from another positively by the latter being a compound,
the former a unity. Anaxagoras had by the assumption of his Chaos at
least so much to his advantage, that he was not compelled to deduce the
Many from the One, the Becoming out of the "Existent."

Of course with his complete intermixture of the "seeds" he had to
admit one exception: the Nous was not then, nor is It now admixed with
any thing. For if It were admixed with only one "Existent," It would
have, in infinite divisions, to dwell in all things. This exception
is logically very dubious, especially considering the previously
described material nature of the Nous, it has something mythological in
itself and seems arbitrary, but was however, according to Anaxagorean
_prœmissa,_ a strict necessity. The Mind, which is moreover infinitely
divisible like any other matter, only not through other matters but
through Itself, has, if It divides Itself, in dividing and conglobating
sometimes in large, sometimes in small masses, Its equal mass and
quality from all eternity; and that which at this minute exists as Mind
in animals, plants, men, was also Mind without a more or less, although
distributed in another way a thousand years ago. But wherever It had a
relation to another substance, there It never was admixed with it, but
voluntarily seized it, moved and pushed it arbitrarily--in short, ruled
it. Mind, which alone has motion in Itself, alone possesses ruling
power in this world and shows it through moving the grains of matter.
But whither does It move them? Or is a motion conceivable, without
direction, without path? Is Mind in Its impacts just as arbitrary
as it is, with regard to the time when It pushes, and when It does
not push? In short, does Chance, _i.e.,_ the blindest option, rule
within Motion? At this boundary we step into the Most Holy within the
conceptual realm of Anaxagoras.



17


What had to be done with that chaotic pell-mell of the primal state
previous to all motion, so that out of it, without any increase of
new substances and forces, the existing world might originate, with
its regular stellar orbits, with its regulated forms of seasons and
days, with its manifold beauty and order,--in short, so that

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Text Comparison with On the Future of our Educational Institutions

Page 0
| | | | Obvious typographical errors have been corrected.
Page 3
When ye shall go forth to battle in your full panoply, who among you will not rejoice in looking back upon the herald who rallied you? INTRODUCTION.
Page 9
Frankly speaking, the rules which were drawn up on the formation of the club were never very strictly observed;.
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At that time we were passionately fond of pistol-shooting, and both of us in later years found the skill we had acquired as amateurs of great use in our military career.
Page 19
What? Are you too proud to be a teacher? Do you despise the thronging multitude of learners? Do you speak contemptuously of the teacher's calling? And, aping my mode of life, would you fain live in solitary seclusion, hostilely isolated from that multitude? Do you suppose that you can reach at one bound what I ultimately had to win for myself only after long and determined struggles, in order even to be able to live like a philosopher? And do you not fear that solitude will wreak its vengeance upon you? Just try living the life of a hermit of culture.
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It seemed to me that I must recognise two main directions in the forces at work--two seemingly antagonistic tendencies, equally deleterious in their action, and ultimately combining to produce their results: a striving to achieve the greatest possible _expansion_ of education on the one hand, and a tendency to _minimise and weaken_ it on the other.
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That is what is now called 'the social question.
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In the newspaper the peculiar educational aims of the present culminate, just as the journalist, the servant of the moment, has stepped into the place of the genius, of the leader for all time, of the deliverer from the tyranny of the moment.
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He would necessarily urge his pupils, time and again, to express the same thought ever more happily; nor would he have to abate in rigour until the less gifted in his class had contracted an unholy fear of their language, and the others had developed great enthusiasm for it.
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"There may still be men who recognise a most absurd and most dangerous element of the public school curriculum in the whole farce of this German composition.
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Who, having seen all these effects at _one_ glance, could any longer doubt whether all the faults of our public, literary, and artistic life were not stamped upon every fresh generation by the system we are examining: hasty and vain production, the disgraceful manufacture of books; complete want of style; the crude, characterless, or sadly swaggering method of expression; the loss of every aesthetic canon; the voluptuousness of anarchy and chaos--in short, the literary peculiarities of both our journalism and our scholarship.
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All this with the result that you remain eternally at a distance from antiquity and become the servants of the day.
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Just because we take this matter so seriously, we should not take our own poor selves so seriously: at the very moment we are falling some one else will grasp the banner of our faith.
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But for the genius to make his appearance; for him to emerge from among the people; to portray the reflected picture, as it were, the dazzling brilliancy of the peculiar colours of this people; to depict the noble destiny of a people in the similitude of an individual in a work which will last for all time, thereby making his nation itself eternal, and redeeming it from the ever-shifting element of transient things: all this is possible for the genius only when he has been brought up and come to maturity in the tender care of the culture of a people; whilst, on the other hand, without this sheltering home, the genius will not, generally speaking, be able to rise to the height of his eternal flight, but will at an early moment, like a stranger weather-driven upon a bleak, snow-covered desert, slink away from the inhospitable land.
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This herd has turned with much greater zest to the science of language: here in this wide expanse of virgin soil, where even the most mediocre gifts can be turned to account, and where a kind of insipidity and dullness is even looked upon as decided talent, with the novelty and uncertainty of methods and the constant danger of making fantastic mistakes--here, where dull regimental routine and discipline are desiderata--here the newcomer is no longer frightened by the majestic and warning voice that rises from the ruins of antiquity: here every one is welcomed with open arms, including even him who never arrived at any uncommon impression or noteworthy thought after a perusal of Sophocles and Aristophanes, with the result that they end in an etymological tangle, or are seduced into collecting the fragments of out-of-the-way dialects--and their time is spent in associating and dissociating, collecting and scattering, and running hither and thither consulting books.
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culture! To say the least, the secondary schools cannot be reproached with this; for they have up to the present propitiously and honourably followed up tendencies of a lower order, but one nevertheless highly necessary.
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I don't deny, of course, that they can find pompous words with which to describe their aims: for example, they speak of the 'universal development of free personality upon a firm social, national, and human basis,' or they announce as their goal: 'The founding of the peaceful sovereignty of the people upon reason, education, and justice.
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is left to the independent decision of the liberal-minded and unprejudiced student, and since, again, he can withhold all belief and authority from what he hears, all training for culture, in the true sense of the term, reverts to himself; and the independence it was thought desirable to aim at in the public school now presents itself with the highest possible pride as 'academical self-training for culture,' and struts about in its brilliant plumage.
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gleam, both as the exemplification of a triviality and, at the same time, of an eternally surprising problem, deserving of explanation.
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