Early Greek Philosophy & Other Essays Collected Works, Volume Two

By Friedrich Nietzsche

Page 80

Kant in a similar case of an equal objection
would have answered: "I can, it is true, say my conceptions follow upon
one another, but that means only that we are not conscious of them
unless within a chronological order, _i.e.,_ according to the form of
the inner sense. For that reason time is not a something in itself
nor any order or quality objectively adherent to things." We should
therefore have to distinguish between the Pure Thinking, that would
be timeless like the one Parmenidean "Being," and the consciousness
of this thinking, and the latter would already translate the thinking
into the form of appearance, _i.e.,_ of succession, plurality and
motion. It is probable that Parmenides would have availed himself
of this loophole; however, the same objection would then have to be
raised against him which is raised against Kant by A. Spir ("Thinking
And Reality," 2nd ed., vol. i., pp. 209, &c). "Now, in the first place
however it is clear, that I cannot know anything of a succession as
such, unless I have the successive members of the same simultaneously
in my consciousness. Thus the conception of a succession itself is
not at all successive, hence also quite different from the succession
of our conceptions. Secondly Kant's assumption implies such obvious
absurdities that one is surprised that he could leave them unnoticed.
Cæsar and Socrates according to this assumption are not really dead,
they still live exactly as they did two thousand years ago and only
seem to be dead, as a consequence of an organisation of my inner
sense." Future men already live and if they do not now step forward as
living that organisation of the "inner sense" is likewise the cause
of it. Here above all other things the question is to be put: How can
the beginning and the end of conscious life itself, together with
all its internal and external senses, exist merely in the conception
of the inner sense? _The_ fact is indeed this, that one certainly
cannot deny the reality of Change. If it is thrown out through the
window it slips in again through the keyhole. If one says: "It merely
seems to me, that conditions and conceptions change,"--then this very
semblance and appearance itself is something objectively existing and
within it without doubt the succession has objective reality, some
things in it really do succeed one another.--Besides one must observe
that indeed the whole critique of reason only has cause and right of
existence under the assumption that to us our _conceptions_ themselves
appear exactly as they are. For if the conceptions also appeared to

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Text Comparison with The Birth of Tragedy; or, Hellenism and Pessimism

Page 0
Strength, robustness, lively dispositions, and a cheerful outlook on life, were among the qualities which every one was pleased to observe in them.
Page 3
He received his early schooling at a preparatory school, and later at a grammar school in Naumburg.
Page 4
The only abnormal thing about him, and something which we both inherited from our father, was short-sightedness, and this was very much aggravated in my brother's case, even in his earliest schooldays, owing to that indescribable anxiety to learn which always characterised him.
Page 17
Here, perhaps for the first time, a pessimism "Beyond Good and Evil" announces itself, here that "perverseness of disposition" obtains expression and formulation, against which Schopenhauer never grew tired of hurling beforehand his angriest imprecations and thunderbolts,--a philosophy which dares to put, derogatorily put, morality itself in the world of phenomena, and not only among "phenomena" (in the sense of the idealistic _terminus technicus_), but among the "illusions," as appearance, semblance, error, interpretation, accommodation, art.
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god of all shaping energies, is also the soothsaying god.
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Though Apollo stands among them as an individual deity, side by side with others, and without claim to priority of rank, we must not suffer this fact to mislead us.
Page 31
Here we must observe that this harmony which is so eagerly contemplated by modern man, in fact, this oneness of man with nature, to express which Schiller introduced the technical term "naïve," is by no means such a simple, naturally resulting and, as it were, inevitable condition, which _must_ be found at the gate of every culture leading to a paradise of man: this could be believed only by an age which sought to picture to itself Rousseau's Émile also as an artist, and imagined it had found in Homer such an artist Émile, reared at Nature's bosom.
Page 32
" In a symbolic painting, _Raphael_, himself one of these immortal "naïve" ones, has represented to us this depotentiating of appearance to appearance, the primordial process of the naïve artist and at the same time of Apollonian culture.
Page 42
This tradition tells us in the most unequivocal terms, _that tragedy sprang from the tragic chorus,_ and was originally only chorus and nothing but chorus: and hence we feel it our duty to look into the heart of this tragic chorus as being the real proto-drama, without in the least contenting ourselves with current art-phraseology--according to which the chorus is the ideal spectator, or represents the people in contrast to the regal side of the scene.
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blasphemy to speak here of the anticipation of a "constitutional representation of the people," from which blasphemy others have not shrunk, however.
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Before him the cultured man shrank to a lying caricature.
Page 54
What is most wonderful, however, in this Promethean form, which according to its fundamental conception is the specific hymn of impiety, is the profound Æschylean yearning for _justice_: the untold sorrow of the bold "single-handed being" on the one hand, and the divine need, ay, the foreboding of a twilight of the gods, on the other, the power of these two worlds of suffering constraining to reconciliation, to metaphysical oneness--all this suggests most forcibly the central and main position of the Æschylean view of things, which sees Moira as eternal justice enthroned above gods and men.
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[17] Woe! Woe! Thou hast it destroyed, The beautiful world; With powerful fist; In ruin 'tis hurled! _Faust,_ trans.
Page 75
The prompting voice of the Socratic dream-vision is the only sign of doubtfulness as to the limits of logical nature.
Page 76
In the sense of these last portentous questions it must now be indicated how the influence of Socrates (extending to the present moment, indeed, to all futurity) has spread over posterity like an ever-increasing shadow in the evening sun, and how this influence again and again necessitates a regeneration of _art,_--yea, of art already with metaphysical, broadest and profoundest sense,--and its own eternity guarantees also the eternity of art.
Page 78
For if one were to imagine the whole incalculable sum of energy which has been used up by that universal tendency,--employed, _not_ in the service of knowledge, but for the practical, _i.
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He who wishes to test himself rigorously as to how he is related to the true æsthetic hearer, or whether he belongs rather to the community of the Socrato-critical man, has only to enquire sincerely concerning the sentiment with which he accepts.
Page 116
Tragic myth, in so far as it really belongs to art, also fully participates in this transfiguring metaphysical purpose of art in general: What does it transfigure, however, when it presents the phenomenal world in the guise of the suffering hero? Least of all the "reality" of this phenomenal world, for it says to us: "Look at this! Look carefully! It is your life! It.
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