Early Greek Philosophy & Other Essays Collected Works, Volume Two

By Friedrich Nietzsche

Page 77

of qualities. But if
the world in fact is full of the most different qualities then these
must, in case they are not appearance, have a "Being," _i.e.,_ must
be eternal, increate, imperishable and ever co-existing. Appearance,
however, they cannot be, since the question as to the Whence? of
Appearance remains unanswered, yea answers itself in the negative! The
earlier seekers after Truth had intended to simplify the problem of
Becoming by advancing only one substance, which bore in its bosom the
possibilities of all Becoming; now on the contrary it is asserted:
there are innumerable substances, but never more, never less, and never
new ones. Only Motion, playing dice with them throws them into ever
new combinations. That Motion however is a truth and not Appearance,
Anaxagoras proved in opposition to Parmenides by the indisputable
succession of our conceptions in thinking. We have therefore in the
most direct fashion the insight into the truth of motion and succession
in the fact that we think and have conceptions. Therefore at any rate
the _one_ rigid, resting, dead "Being" of Parmenides has been removed
out of the way, there are many "Existents" just as surely as all
these many "Existents" (existing things, substances) are in motion.
Change is motion--but whence originates motion? Does this motion leave
perhaps wholly untouched the proper essence of those many independent,
isolated substances, and, according to the most severe idea of the
"Existent," _must_ not motion in itself be foreign to them? Or does
it after all belong to the things themselves? We stand here at an
important decision; according to which way we turn, we shall step into
the realm either of Anaxagoras or of Empedocles or of Democritus. The
delicate question must be raised: if there are many substances, and if
these many move, what moves them? Do they move one another? Or is it
perhaps only gravitation? Or are there magic forces of attraction and
repulsion within the things themselves? Or does the cause of motion
lie outside these many real substances? Or putting the question
more pointedly: if two things show a succession, a mutual change of
position, does that originate from themselves? And is this to be
explained mechanically or magically? Or if this should not be the case
is it a third something which moves them? It is a sorry problem, for
Parmenides would still have been able to prove against Anaxagoras the
impossibility of motion, even granted that there are many substances.
For he could say: Take two Substances existing of themselves, each with
quite differently fashioned, autonomous, unconditioned "Being"--and
of such kind are the Anaxagorean substances--they can

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Text Comparison with Thoughts out of Season, Part I David Strauss, the Confessor and the Writer - Richard Wagner in Bayreuth.

Page 7
in the British mind.
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But, secondly, I must not forget that in every Anarchist, and therefore in every Christian, there is also, or may be, an aristocrat--a man who, just like the anarchist, but with a perfectly holy right, wishes to obey no laws but those of his own conscience; a man who thinks too highly of his own faith and persuasion, to convert other people to it; a man who, therefore, would never carry it to Caffres and Coolis; a man, in short, with whom even the noblest and exclusive Hebrew could shake hands.
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In this sphere, not only happiness but ecstasy reigns supreme.
Page 23
This imposing sameness, this _tutti unisono_ which, though it responds to no word of command, is yet ever ready to burst forth, cozens him.
Page 28
A company of Philistines were feasting together, in celebration of the memory of a genuine anti-Philistine--one who, moreover, had been, in the strictest sense of the words, wrecked by Philistinism.
Page 31
He no longer craved the honours of the thinker, however; all he wanted to be was a new believer, and he is proud of his new belief.
Page 45
" If this refutation of Schopenhauer is not the same as that to which Strauss refers somewhere else as "the refutation loudly and jubilantly acclaimed in higher spheres," then I quite fail to understand the dramatic phraseology used by him elsewhere to strike an opponent.
Page 59
The house, as a whole, is still uninhabitable and gloomy, its walls are bare, and the wind blows in through the open windows.
Page 67
When, for instance, he tells us, "it would also argue ingratitude towards _my genius_ if I were not to rejoice that to the faculty of an incisive, analytical criticism was added the innocent pleasure in artistic production," it may astonish him to hear that, in spite of this self-praise, there are still men who maintain exactly the reverse, and who say, not only that he has never possessed the gift of artistic production, but that the "innocent" pleasure he mentions is of all things the least innocent, seeing that it succeeded in gradually undermining and ultimately destroying a nature as strongly and deeply scholarly and critical as Strauss's--in fact, the _real Straussian Genius_.
Page 86
of languages, the mythologist and the myth poet, who was the first to include all these wonderful and beautiful products of primitive times in a single Ring, upon which he engraved the runic characters of his thoughts--what a wealth of knowledge must Wagner have accumulated and commanded, in order to have become all that! And yet this mass of material was just as powerless to impede the action of his will as a matter of detail--however attractive--was to draw his purpose from its path.
Page 89
The rhythmic play of those two factors against each other is the force that has determined the course of history heretofore.
Page 94
What we, for the time being, regard as so worthy of effort, and what makes us sympathise with the tragic hero when he prefers death to renouncing the object of his desire, this can seldom retain the same value and energy when transferred to everyday life: that is why art is the business of the man who is recreating himself.
Page 96
The meaning of this necessity is the riddle which Wagner answers.
Page 97
Regarded merely as a spectacle, and compared with other and earlier manifestations of human life, the existence of modern man is characterised by indescribable indigence and exhaustion, despite the unspeakable garishness at which only the superficial observer rejoices.
Page 110
When the ruling idea of his life gained ascendancy over his mind--the idea that drama is, of all arts, the one that can exercise the greatest amount of influence over the world--it aroused the most active emotions in his whole being.
Page 117
A great German war caused him to open his eyes, and he observed that those very Germans whom he considered so thoroughly degenerate and so inferior to the high standard of real Teutonism, of which he had formed an ideal both from self-knowledge and the conscientious study of other great Germans in history; he observed that those very Germans were, in the midst of terrible circumstances, exhibiting two virtues of the highest order--simple bravery and prudence; and with his heart bounding with delight he conceived the hope that he might not be the last German, and that some day a greater power would perhaps stand by his works than that devoted yet meagre one consisting of his little band of friends--a power able to guard it during that long period preceding its future glory, as the masterpiece of this future.
Page 119
This growing passion on the part of the theatre-going public bewildered even some of Wagner's friends; but this man who had endured so much, had still to endure the bitterest pain of all--he had to see his friends intoxicated with his "successes" and "triumphs" everywhere where his highest ideal was openly belied and shattered.
Page 125
The fear of passion suggested the first rule, and the fear of monotony the second; all.
Page 133
His art may not, like the philosopher's, be put aboard the boat of written documents: art needs _capable men_, not letters and notes, to transmit it.
Page 140
heavenly dome of beauty and goodness and to say, This is our life, that Wagner has transferred to a place beneath the stars? Where are the men among you who are able to interpret the divine image of Wotan in the light of their own lives, and who can become ever greater while, like him, ye retreat? Who among you would renounce power, knowing and having learned that power is evil? Where are they who like Brunhilda abandon their knowledge to love, and finally rob their lives of the highest wisdom, "afflicted love, deepest sorrow, opened my eyes"? and where are the free and fearless, developing and blossoming in innocent egoism? and where are the Siegfrieds, among you? He who questions thus and does so in vain, will find himself compelled to look around him for signs of the future; and should his eye, on reaching an unknown distance, espy just that "people" which his own generation can read out of the signs contained in Wagnerian art, he will then also understand _what Wagner will mean to this people_--something that he cannot be to all of us, namely, not the prophet of the future, as perhaps he would fain appear to us, but the interpreter and clarifier of the past.