Early Greek Philosophy & Other Essays Collected Works, Volume Two

By Friedrich Nietzsche

Page 58

supposed to be the preliminary stages, the still more original
qualities. With their issuing forth from the primordial existence
of the "Indefinite," Becoming begins. Heraclitus who as physicist
subordinated himself to the importance of Anaximander, explains to
himself this Anaximandrian "Warm" as the respiration, the warm breath,
the dry vapours, in short as the fiery element: about this fire he now
enunciates the same as Thales and Anaximander had enunciated about
the water: that in innumerable metamorphoses it was passing along the
path of Becoming, especially in the three chief aggregate stages as
something Warm, Moist, and Firm. For water in descending is transformed
into earth, in ascending into fire: or as Heraclitus appears to have
expressed himself more exactly: from the sea ascend only the pure
vapours which serve as food to the divine fire of the stars, from the
earth only the dark, foggy ones, from which the Moist derives its
nourishment. The pure vapours are the transitional stage in the passing
of sea into fire, the impure the transitional stage in the passing
of earth into water. Thus the two paths of metamorphosis of the fire
run continuously side by side, upwards and downwards, to and fro, from
fire to water, from water to earth, from earth back again to water,
from water to fire. Whereas Heraclitus is a follower of Anaximander in
the most important of these conceptions, _e.g.,_ that the fire is kept
up by the evaporations, or herein, that out of the water is dissolved
partly earth, partly fire; he is on the other hand quite independent
and in opposition to Anaximander in excluding the "Cold" from the
physical process, whilst Anaximander had put it side by side with the
"Warm" as having the same rights, so as to let the "Moist" originate
out of both. To do so, was of course a necessity to Heraclitus, for
if everything is to be fire, then, however many possibilities of its
transformation might be assumed, nothing can exist that would be the
absolute antithesis to fire; he has, therefore, probably interpreted
only as a degree of the "Warm" that which is called the "Cold," and
he could justify this interpretation without difficulty. Much more
important than this deviation from the doctrine of Anaximander is a
further agreement; he, like the latter, believes in an end of the
world periodically repeating itself and in an ever-renewed emerging of
another world out of the all-destroying world-fire. The period during
which the world hastens towards that world-fire and the dissolution
into pure fire is characterised by him most strikingly as a demand
and a need; the state

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Text Comparison with The Joyful Wisdom Complete Works, Volume Ten

Page 14
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Page 28
When one considers that this means precisely to _exclude_ all the world from a precious possession, a happiness, and an enjoyment; when one considers that the lover has in view the impoverishment and privation of all other rivals, and would like to become the dragon of his golden hoard, as the most inconsiderate and selfish of all "conquerors" and exploiters; when one considers finally that to the lover himself, the whole world besides appears indifferent, colourless, and worthless, and that he is ready to make every sacrifice, disturb every arrangement, and put every other interest behind his own,--one is verily surprised that this ferocious lust of property and injustice of sexual love should have been glorified and deified to such an extent at all times; yea, that out of this love the conception of love as the antithesis of egoism should have been derived, when it is perhaps precisely the most unqualified expression of egoism.
Page 31
If you have a virtue, an actual, perfect virtue (and not merely a kind of impulse towards virtue!)--you are its _victim!_ But your neighbour praises your virtue precisely on that account! One praises the diligent man though he injures his sight, or the originality and freshness of his spirit, by his diligence; the youth is honoured and regretted who has "worn himself out by work," because one passes the judgment that "for society as a whole the loss of the best individual is only a small sacrifice! A pity that this sacrifice should be necessary! A much greater pity it is true, if the individual should think differently and regard his preservation and development as more important than his work in the service of society!" And so one regrets this youth, not on his own account, but because a devoted _instrument,_ regardless of self--a so-called "good man," has been lost to society by his death.
Page 64
Is it not a very funny thing that the most serious philosophers, however anxious they are in other respects for strict certainty, still appeal to _poetical sayings_ in order to give their thoughts force and credibility? and yet it is more dangerous to a truth when the poet assents to it than when he contradicts it! For, as Homer says, "Minstrels speak much falsehood!"-- 85.
Page 78
" 107.
Page 84
How could we ever explain! We operate only with things which do not exist, with lines, surfaces, bodies, atoms, divisible times, divisible spaces--how can explanation ever be possible when we first make everything a _conception,_ our conception! It is sufficient to regard science as the exactest humanising of things that is possible; we always learn to describe ourselves more accurately by describing things and their successions.
Page 103
_--"One is not discourteous when one knocks at a door with a stone when the bell-pull is awanting"--so think all beggars and necessitous persons, but no one thinks they are in the right.
Page 118
_--I love short-lived habits, and regard them as an invaluable means for getting a knowledge of _many_ things and various conditions, to the very bottom of their sweetness and bitterness; my nature is altogether arranged for short-lived habits, even in the needs of its bodily health, and in general, _as far as_ I can see, from the lowest up to the highest matters.
Page 124
_ But I do not mean to strive with open eyes for my impoverishment; I do not like any of the negative virtues whose very essence is negation and self-renunciation.
Page 140
_ Ah, how little you know of the _happiness_ of man, you comfortable and good-natured ones!--for happiness and misfortune are brother and sister, and twins, who grow tall together, or, as with you, _remain small_ together! But now let us return to the first question.
Page 147
It makes the most material difference whether a thinker stands personally related to his problems, having his fate, his need, and even his highest happiness therein; or merely impersonally, that is to say, if he can only feel and grasp them with the tentacles of cold, prying thought.
Page 150
_--How much _faith_ a person requires in order to flourish, how much "fixed opinion" he requires which he does not wish to have shaken, because he _holds_ himself thereby--is a measure of his power (or more plainly speaking, of his weakness).
Page 151
_ 348.
Page 157
Granted that this observation is correct, I may proceed further to the conjecture that _consciousness generally has only been developed under the pressure of the necessity for communication,_--that from the first it has been necessary and useful only between man and man (especially between those commanding and those obeying) and has only developed in proportion to its utility Consciousness is properly only a connecting network between man and man,--it is only as such that it has had to develop; the recluse and wild-beast species of men would not have needed it The very fact that our actions, thoughts, feelings and motions come within the range of our consciousness--at least a part of them--is the result of a terrible, prolonged "must" ruling man's destiny: as the most endangered animal he _needed_ help and protection; he needed his fellows, he was obliged to express his distress, he had to know how to make himself understood--and for all this he needed "consciousness" first of all: he had to "know" himself what he lacked, to "know" how he felt, and to "know" what he thought.
Page 161
Free society? Indeed! Indeed! But you know, gentlemen, sure enough whereof one builds it? Out of wooden iron! Out of the famous wooden iron! And not even out of wooden.
Page 162
Let us take thirdly, the astonishing hit of _Hegel,_ who stuck at no logical usage or fastidiousness when he ventured to teach that the conceptions of kinds develop _out of one another:_ with which theory the thinkers in Europe were prepared for the last great scientific movement, for Darwinism--for without Hegel there would have been no Darwin.
Page 173
Or we enter by a closed door.
Page 176
My melancholy would fain rest its head in the hiding-places and abysses of _perfection:_ for this reason I need music.
Page 184
them that my secret wisdom and _gaya scienza_ is especially to be laid to heart! For their lot is hard, their hope uncertain; it is a clever feat to devise consolation for them.
Page 187
compare it with other earlier or future moralities, one must do as the traveller who wants to know the height of the towers of a city: for that purpose he _leaves_ the city.