Early Greek Philosophy & Other Essays Collected Works, Volume Two

By Friedrich Nietzsche

Page 57

Are they immortal gods? Are they
separate beings working for themselves from the beginning and without
end? And if the world which we see knows only Becoming and Passing but
no Permanence, should perhaps those qualities constitute a differently
fashioned metaphysical world, true, not a world of unity as Anaximander
sought behind the fluttering veil of plurality, but a world of eternal
and essential pluralities?" Is it possible that however violently he
had denied such duality, Heraclitus has after all by a round-about way
accidentally got into the dual cosmic order, an order with an Olympus
of numerous immortal gods and demons,--viz., _many_ realities,--and
with a human world, which sees only the dust-cloud of the Olympic
struggle and the flashing of divine spears,--_i.e.,_ only a Becoming?
Anaximander had fled just from these definite qualities into the lap of
the metaphysical "Indefinite"; because the former _became_ and passed,
he had denied them a true and essential existence; however should it
not seem now as if the Becoming is only the looming-into-view of a
struggle of eternal qualities? When we speak of the Becoming, should
not the original cause of this be sought in the peculiar feebleness of
human cognition--whereas in the nature of things there is perhaps no
Becoming, but only a co-existing of many true increate indestructible
realities?

These are Heraclitean loop-holes and labyrinths; he exclaims once
again: "The 'One' is the 'Many'." The many perceptible qualities are
neither eternal entities, nor phantasmata of our senses (Anaxagoras
conceives them later on as the former, Parmenides as the latter),
they are neither rigid, sovereign "Being" nor fleeting Appearance
hovering in human minds. The third possibility which alone was left
to Heraclitus nobody will be able to divine with dialectic sagacity
and as it were by calculation, for what he invented here is a rarity
even in the realm of mystic incredibilities and unexpected cosmic
metaphors.--The world is the _Game_ of Zeus, or expressed more
physically, the game of fire with itself, the "One" is only in this
sense at the same time the "Many."--

In order to elucidate in the first place the introduction of fire as
a world-shaping force, I recall how Anaximander had further developed
the theory of water as the origin of things. Placing confidence in the
essential part of Thales' theory, and strengthening and adding to the
latter's observations, Anaximander however was not to be convinced
that before the water and, as it were, after the water there was no
further stage of quality: no, to him out of the Warm and the Cold
the Moist seemed to form itself, and the Warm and the Cold therefore
were

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Text Comparison with Thoughts Out of Season, Part II

Page 0
[Illustration] The Complete Works of Friedrich Nietzsche The First Complete and Authorised English Translation Edited by Dr Oscar Levy Volume Five T.
Page 5
Such a nature can forget what it cannot subdue; there is no break in the horizon, and nothing to remind it that there are still men, passions, theories and aims on the other side.
Page 9
Our being is pain and weariness, and the world is mud--nothing else.
Page 12
Till then monumental history will never be able to have complete truth; it will always bring together things that are incompatible and generalise them into compatibility, will always weaken the differences of motive and occasion.
Page 13
In their eyes no need nor inclination nor historical authority is in favour of the art which is not yet "monumental" because it is contemporary.
Page 14
"Here one could live," he says, "as one can live here now--and will go on living; for.
Page 16
For the things of the past are never viewed in their true perspective or receive their just value; but value and perspective change with the individual or the nation that is looking back on its past.
Page 23
And to leave no doubt of the instance I am taking of the need and the knowledge, my testimony shall stand, that it is German unity in its highest sense which is the goal of our endeavour, far more than political union: it is the unity of the German spirit and life after the annihilation of the antagonism between form and substance, inward life and convention.
Page 36
Everything that forces a man to be no longer unconditioned in his love, cuts at the root of his strength: he must wither, and be dishonoured.
Page 40
If you thought much of the people, you would have compassion towards them, and shrink from offering your historical aquafortis as a refreshing drink.
Page 43
We might be allowed at some time to put our aim higher and further above us.
Page 45
rondo,--or rather, as simply superfluous.
Page 46
Thus you become an _advocatus diaboli_ by setting up the success, the fact, as your idol: whereas the fact is always dull, at all times more like calf than a god.
Page 60
Thus it lives in a deep antagonism towards the powers that make for eternity--art and religion,--for it hates the forgetfulness that is the death of knowledge, and tries to remove all limitation of horizon and cast men into an infinite boundless sea, whose waves are bright with the clear knowledge--of becoming! If they could only live therein! Just as towns are shaken by an avalanche and become desolate, and man builds his house there in fear and for a season only; so life is broken in sunder and becomes weak and spiritless, if the avalanche of ideas started by science take from man the foundation of his rest and security, the belief in what is stable and eternal.
Page 73
I get profit from a philosopher, just so far as he can be an example to me.
Page 75
He often chose falsely in his desire to find real trust and compassion in men, only to return with a heavy heart to his faithful dog again.
Page 81
The secret of nature's being and his own lay open,.
Page 105
He is cold and may easily appear cruel.
Page 108
At present the labours of higher education produce merely the savant or the official or the business man or the Philistine or, more commonly, a mixture of all four; and the future institutions will have a harder task;--not in itself harder; as it is really more natural, and so easier; and further, could anything be harder than to make a youth into a savant against nature, as now happens?--But the difficulty lies in unlearning what we know and setting up a new aim; it will be an endless trouble to change the fundamental idea of our present educational system, that has its roots in the Middle Ages and regards the mediæval savant as the ideal type of culture.
Page 125
All her true friends are bound to bear witness against this transformation, at least to show that it is merely her false servants in philosopher's clothing who are so.