Early Greek Philosophy & Other Essays Collected Works, Volume Two

By Friedrich Nietzsche

Page 53

solving how out of the Indefinite the
Definite, out of the Eternal the Temporal, out of the Just the Unjust
could by secession ever originate, the darker the night became.----



5


Towards the midst of this mystic night, in which Anaximander's problem
of the Becoming was wrapped up, Heraclitus of Ephesus approached and
illuminated it by a divine flash of lightning. "I contemplate the
Becoming," he exclaimed,--"and nobody has so attentively watched this
eternal wave-surging and rhythm of things. And what do I behold?
Lawfulness, infallible certainty, ever equal paths of Justice,
condemning Erinyes behind all transgressions of the laws, the whole
world the spectacle of a governing justice and of demoniacally
omnipresent natural forces subject to justice's sway. I do not behold
the punishment of that which has become, but the justification of
Becoming. When has sacrilege, when has apostasy manifested itself in
inviolable forms, in laws esteemed sacred? Where injustice sways, there
is caprice, disorder, irregularity, contradiction; where however Law
and Zeus' daughter, Dike, rule alone, as in this world, how could the
sphere of guilt, of expiation, of judgment, and as it were the place of
execution of all condemned ones be there?"

From this intuition Heraclitus took two coherent negations, which are
put into the right light only by a comparison with the propositions of
his predecessor. Firstly, he denied the duality of two quite diverse
worlds, into the assumption of which Anaximander had been pushed; he
no longer distinguished a physical world from a metaphysical, a realm
of definite qualities from a realm of indefinable indefiniteness. Now
after this first step he could neither be kept back any longer from
a still greater audacity of denying: he denied "Being" altogether.
For this one world which was left to him,--shielded all round by
eternal, unwritten laws, flowing up and down in the brazen beat of
rhythm,--shows nowhere persistence, indestructibility, a bulwark in the
stream. Louder than Anaximander, Heraclitus exclaimed: "I see nothing
but Becoming. Be not deceived! It is the fault of your limited outlook
and not the fault of the essence of things if you believe that you see
firm land anywhere in the ocean of Becoming and Passing. You need names
for things, just as if they had a rigid permanence, but the very river
in which you bathe a second time is no longer the same one which you
entered before."

Heraclitus has as his royal property the highest power of intuitive
conception, whereas towards the other mode of conception which is
consummated by ideas and logical combinations, that is towards reason,
he shows himself cool, apathetic, even hostile, and he seems to
derive a

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Text Comparison with The Will to Power, Book I and II An Attempted Transvaluation of all Values

Page 5
] PREFACE.
Page 6
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Page 37
The Decline of _Protestantism_: theoretically and historically understood as a half-measure.
Page 45
Théophile Gautier's and Richard Wagner's dislike of Rome must not be forgotten.
Page 54
Bloodless sneaks (with mandarins at their head, as Comte imagined them) are now a matter of the past.
Page 73
.
Page 75
Here lies the psychological difficulty which has stood in the way of Christianity being understood: the force which created it, urges to a struggle against itself.
Page 95
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Page 100
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Page 111
What is the _meaning_ of this predominance? What does it point to? To a certain _greater urgency_ of saying nay or yea definitely in this domain.
Page 113
That is so tasteless and obviously insane; but--it is felt to be holy and of a higher order.
Page 114
" Thus, the insistence upon truthfulness has as its main object the _recognisability_ and the _stability_ of the individual.
Page 116
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Page 118
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Page 144
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Page 157
The Church believes in things that do not exist, it believes in "Souls"; it believes in "influences" that do not exist--in divine influences; it believes in states that do not exist, in sin, redemption, and spiritual salvation: in all things it stops at the surface and is satisfied with signs, attitudes, words, to which it lends an arbitrary interpretation.
Page 159
" *** Man, incarcerated in an iron cage of errors, has become a caricature of man; he is sick, emaciated, ill-disposed towards himself, filled with a loathing of the impulses of life, filled with a mistrust of all that is beautiful and happy in life--in fact, he is a wandering monument of.
Page 163
(Morality was necessary in order to make man triumph in his struggle with Nature and "wild animals.
Page 167
of being suppressed--ugly! 417.
Page 168
I trust I may be allowed to say that even the scientific man is a fundamentally different person from the philosopher.