Early Greek Philosophy & Other Essays Collected Works, Volume Two

By Friedrich Nietzsche

Page 30

more from ours than the _colouring,_
derived hence, of some ethical ideas, _e.g.,_ of _Eris_ and of _Envy_.

When the traveller Pausanius during his wanderings through Greece
visited the Helicon, a very old copy of the first didactic poem of the
Greeks, "The Works and Days" of Hesiod, was shown to him, inscribed
upon plates of lead and severely damaged by time and weather. However
he recognised this much, that, unlike the usual copies, it had _not_
at its head that little hymnus on Zeus, but began at once with the
declaration: "_Two_ Eris-goddesses are on earth." This is one of the
most noteworthy Hellenic thoughts and worthy to be impressed on the
new-comer immediately at the entrance-gate of Greek ethics. "One would
like to praise the one Eris, just as much as to blame the other, if
one uses one's reason. For these two goddesses have quite different
dispositions. For the one, the cruel one, furthers the evil war and
feud! No mortal likes her, but under the yoke of need one pays honour
to the burdensome Eris, according to the decree of the immortals. She,
as the elder, gave birth to black night. Zeus the high-ruling one,
however, placed the other Eris upon the roots of the earth and among
men as a much better one. She urges even the unskilled man to work, and
if one who lacks property beholds another who is rich, then he hastens
to sow in similar fashion and to plant and to put his house in order;
the neighbour vies with the neighbour who strives after fortune. Good
is this Eris to men. The potter also has a grudge against the potter,
and the carpenter against the carpenter; the beggar envies the beggar,
and the singer the singer."

The two last verses which treat of the _odium figulinum_ appear to
our scholars to be incomprehensible in this place. According to their
judgment the predicates: "grudge" and "envy" fit only the nature of
the evil Eris, and for this reason they do not hesitate to designate
these verses as spurious or thrown by chance into this place. For
that judgment however a system of Ethics other than the Hellenic must
have inspired these scholars unawares; for in these verses to the
good Eris Aristotle finds no offence. And not only Aristotle but the
whole Greek antiquity thinks of spite and envy otherwise than we do
and agrees with Hesiod, who first designates as an evil one that Eris
who leads men against one another to a hostile war of extermination,
and secondly praises another Eris as the good one,

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Text Comparison with We Philologists Complete Works of Friedrich Nietzsche, Volume 8

Page 1
I To what a great extent men are ruled by pure hazard, and how little reason itself enters into the question, is.
Page 2
2.
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How strange! The manner in which they live shows that they think very little of themselves: they merely esteem themselves in so far as they waste their energy on trifles (whether these be mean or frivolous desires, or the trashy concerns of their everyday calling).
Page 7
I am convinced that if it had not been surrounded by its traditional glorification, the men of the present day.
Page 11
It must be a gold mine, thinks the spectator.
Page 12
But if this antiquity has been wrongly valued, then the whole foundation upon which the high position of the philologist is based suddenly collapses.
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35 It is the same with the simplicity of antiquity as it is with the simplicity of style: it is the highest thing which we recognise and must imitate; but it is also the last.
Page 14
The main point, however, is that such resistance is only justifiable in the case of the Romanised culture; for this culture, even at that time, was a falling-off from something more profound and noble.
Page 15
it must rather be considered as a testimony against humanism, against the benign nature of man, &c.
Page 19
" "How can you do that," replied Bentley, "when I have forgotten more than you ever knew?" 57 Bentley's clever daughter Joanna once lamented to her father that he had devoted his time and talents to the criticism of the works of others instead of writing something original.
Page 23
90 The following is one way of carrying on classical studies, and a frequent one: a man throws himself thoughtlessly, or is thrown, into some special branch or other, whence he looks to the right and left and sees a great deal that is good and new.
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If we do not like a man, we wish that he may become worse than he.
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I maintain this against Wolf.
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that is the aim of _our_ brethren and colleagues.
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168 When we look from the character and culture of the Catholic Middle Ages back to the Greeks, we see them resplendent indeed in the rays of higher humanity; for, if we have anything to reproach these Greeks with, we must reproach the Middle Ages with it also to a much greater extent.
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One _should_ not even know more about a thing than one could create.
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These few apply this antiquity to the judgment of our own time, as critics of it; and they judge antiquity by their own ideals and are thus critics of antiquity.
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Cicero was one of the greatest benefactors of humanity, even in his own time.
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ix--TR.
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[5] Students who pass certain examinations need only serve one year in the German Army instead of the usual two or three--TR.