Early Greek Philosophy & Other Essays Collected Works, Volume Two

By Friedrich Nietzsche

Page 23

art, merely
as material for vocal music and does not stand to our musically
determined sensation in a disturbing position simply because it does
not incite in us any rational conceptions but, as its ecclesiastical
character conditions too, only touches us with the impression of
well-known symbolic creeds." Besides I do not doubt that Beethoven, had
he written the Tenth Symphony--of which drafts are still extant--would
have composed just the _Tenth_ Symphony.

Let us now approach, after these preparations, the discussion of the
_opera,_ so as to be able to proceed afterwards from the opera to
its counterpart in the Greek tragedy. What we had to observe in the
last movement of the Ninth, _i.e.,_ on the highest level of modern
music-development, viz., that the word-content goes down unheard in
the general sea of sound, is nothing isolated and peculiar, but the
general and eternally valid norm in the vocal music of all times, the
norm which alone is adequate to the origin of lyric song. The man in
a state of Dionysean excitement has a _listener_ just as little as
the orgiastic crowd, a listener to whom he might have something to
communicate, a listener as the epic narrator and generally speaking the
Apollonian artist, to be sure, presupposes. It is rather in the nature
of the Dionysean art, that it has no consideration for the listener:
the inspired servant of Dionysos is, as I said in a former place,
understood only by his compeers. But if we now imagine a listener at
those endemic outbursts of Dionysean excitement then we shall have to
prophesy for him a fate similar to that which Pentheus the discovered
eavesdropper suffered, namely, to be torn to pieces by the Mænads. The
lyric musician sings "as the bird sings,"[1] alone, out of innermost
compulsion; when the listener comes to him with a demand he must
become dumb. Therefore it would be altogether unnatural to ask from
the lyric musician that one should also understand the text-words of
his song, unnatural because here a demand is made by the listener, who
has no right at all during the lyric outburst to claim anything. Now
with the poetry of the great ancient lyric poets in your hand, put
the question honestly to yourself whether they can have even thought
of making themselves clear to the mass of the people standing around
and listening, clear with their world of metaphors and thoughts;
answer this serious question with a look at Pindar and the Æschylian
choir songs. These most daring and obscure intricacies of thought,
this whirl of metaphors, ever impetuously reproducing itself, this
oracular tone

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Text Comparison with Beyond Good and Evil

Page 0
MAGNUS) PREFACE SUPPOSING that Truth is a woman--what then? Is there not ground for suspecting that all philosophers, in so far as they have been dogmatists, have failed to understand women--that the terrible seriousness and clumsy importunity with which they have usually paid their addresses to Truth, have been unskilled and unseemly methods for winning a woman? Certainly she has never allowed herself to be won; and at present every kind of dogma stands with sad and discouraged mien--IF, indeed, it stands at all! For there are scoffers who maintain that it has fallen, that all dogma lies on the ground--nay more, that it is at its last gasp.
Page 1
The philosophy of the dogmatists, it is to be hoped, was only a promise for thousands of years afterwards, as was astrology in still earlier times, in the service of which probably more labour, gold, acuteness, and patience have been spent than on any actual science hitherto: we owe to it, and to its "super-terrestrial" pretensions in Asia and Egypt, the grand style of architecture.
Page 4
That which causes philosophers to be regarded half-distrustfully and half-mockingly, is not the oft-repeated discovery how innocent they are--how often and easily they make mistakes and lose their way, in short, how childish and childlike they are,--but that there is not enough honest dealing with them, whereas they all raise a loud and virtuous outcry when the problem of truthfulness is even hinted at in the remotest manner.
Page 5
Or, still more so, the hocus-pocus in mathematical form, by means of which Spinoza has, as it were, clad his philosophy in mail and mask--in fact, the "love of HIS wisdom," to translate the term fairly and squarely--in order thereby to strike terror at once into the heart of the assailant who should dare to cast a glance on that invincible maiden, that Pallas Athene:--how much of personal timidity and vulnerability does this masquerade of a sickly recluse betray! 6.
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a mushroom specialist, or a chemist; he is not CHARACTERISED by becoming this or that.
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Supposing such a one comes to grief, it is so far from the comprehension of men that they neither feel it, nor sympathize with it.
Page 32
Need I say expressly after all this that they will be free, VERY free spirits, these philosophers of the future--as certainly also they will not be merely free spirits, but something more, higher, greater, and fundamentally different, which does not wish to be misunderstood and mistaken? But while I say this, I feel under OBLIGATION almost as much to them as to ourselves (we free spirits who are their heralds and forerunners), to sweep away from ourselves altogether a stupid old prejudice and misunderstanding, which, like a fog, has too long made the conception of "free spirit" obscure.
Page 42
It is only with the help of history (NOT through his own personal experience, therefore) that the scholar succeeds in bringing himself to a respectful seriousness, and to a certain timid deference in presence of religions; but even when his sentiments have reached the stage of gratitude towards them, he has not personally advanced one step nearer to that which still maintains itself as Church or as piety; perhaps even the contrary.
Page 68
Page 76
As to how far the new warlike age on which we Europeans have evidently entered may perhaps favour the growth of another and stronger kind of skepticism, I should like to express myself preliminarily merely by a parable, which the lovers of German history will already understand.
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But do what we will, fools and appearances say of us: "These are men WITHOUT duty,"--we have always fools and appearances against us! 227.
Page 91
It is desirable that as few people as possible should reflect upon morals, and consequently it is very desirable that morals should not some day become interesting! But let us not be afraid! Things still remain today as they have always been: I see no one in Europe who has (or DISCLOSES) an idea of the fact that philosophizing concerning morals might be conducted in a dangerous, captious, and ensnaring manner--that CALAMITY might be involved therein.
Page 98
On the other hand, a man who has depth of spirit as well as of desires, and has also the depth of benevolence which is capable of severity and harshness, and easily confounded with them, can only think of woman as ORIENTALS do: he must conceive of her as a possession, as confinable property, as a being predestined for service and accomplishing her mission therein--he must take his stand in this matter upon the immense rationality of Asia, upon the superiority of the instinct of Asia, as the Greeks did formerly; those best heirs and scholars of Asia--who, as is well known, with their INCREASING culture and amplitude of power, from Homer to the time of Pericles, became gradually STRICTER towards woman, in short, more Oriental.
Page 100
That which, in spite of fear, excites one's sympathy for the dangerous and beautiful cat, "woman," is that she seems more afflicted, more vulnerable, more necessitous of love, and more condemned to disillusionment than any other creature.
Page 106
But how rapidly does THIS very sentiment now pale, how difficult nowadays is even the APPREHENSION of this sentiment, how strangely does the language of Rousseau, Schiller, Shelley, and Byron sound to our ear, in whom COLLECTIVELY the same fate of Europe was able to SPEAK, which knew how to SING in Beethoven!--Whatever German music came afterwards, belongs to Romanticism, that is to say, to a movement which, historically considered, was still shorter, more fleeting, and more superficial than that great interlude, the transition of Europe from Rousseau to Napoleon, and to the rise of democracy.
Page 123
The problem for him is to represent to his mind beings who seek to arouse a good opinion of themselves which they themselves do not possess--and consequently also do not "deserve,"--and who yet BELIEVE in this good opinion afterwards.
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On the other hand, it is known by the experience of breeders that species which receive super-abundant nourishment, and in general a surplus of protection and care, immediately tend in the most marked way to develop variations, and are fertile in prodigies and monstrosities (also in monstrous vices).
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potent of all the forces which have hitherto operated upon mankind.
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-- 277.