Car j'ai honte, à cause de sa honte, de ce que j'ai vu souffrir celui
qui souffre; et lorsque je lui suis venu en aide, j'ai blessé durement
De grandes obligations ne rendent pas reconnaissant, mais vindicatif;
et si l'on n'oublie pas le petit bienfait, il finit par devenir un ver
"N'acceptez qu'avec réserve! Distinguez en prenant!" - c'est ce que je
conseille à ceux qui n'ont rien à donner.
Mais moi je suis de ceux qui donnent: j'aime à donner, en ami, aux
amis. Pourtant que les étrangers et les pauvres cueillent eux-mêmes le
fruit de mon arbre: cela est moins humiliant pour eux.
Mais on devrait entièrement supprimer les mendiants! En vérité, on se
fâche de leur donner et l'on se fâche de ne pas leur donner.
Il en est de même des pécheurs et des mauvaises consciences!
Croyez-moi, mes amis, les remords poussent à mordre.
Mais ce qu'il y a de pire, ce sont les pensées mesquines. En vérité,
il vaut mieux faire mal que de penser petitement.
Vous dites, il est vrai: "La joie des petites méchancetés nous épargne
mainte grande mauvaise action." Mais en cela on ne devrait pas vouloir
La mauvaise action est comme un ulcère: elle démange et irrite et fait
irruption, - elle parle franchement.
"Voici, je suis une maladie" - ainsi parle la mauvaise action; ceci est
Mais la petite pensée est pareille au champignon; elle se dérobe et se
cache et ne veut être nulle part - jusqu'à ce que tout le corps soit
rongé et flétri par les petits champignons.
Cependant, je glisse cette parole à l'oreille de celui qui est possédé
du démon: "Il vaut mieux laisser grandir ton démon! Pour toi aussi, il
existe un chemin de la grandeur!"
Hélas, mes frères! Chez chacun il vaudrait mieux ignorer quelque
chose? Et il y en a qui deviennent transparents pour nous, mais ce
n'est pas encore une raison pour que nous puissions pénétrer leurs
Il est difficile de vivre avec les hommes, puisqu'il est difficile de
garder le silence.
Et ce n'est pas envers celui qui nous est antipathique que nous sommes
le plus injustes, mais envers celui qui ne nous regarde en rien.
Cependant, si tu as un ami qui souffre, sois un asile pour sa
souffrance, mais sois en quelque sorte un lit dur, un lit de camp:
c'est ainsi que tu lui seras le plus utile.
Et si un ami te fait du mal, dis-lui: "Je te pardonne ce que tu m'as
fait; mais que tu te le sois fait _à
Broadly speaking, the English public schools, the older English universities, and the American high schools, train their scholars to be useful to the State: the modern universities and the remaining schools give that instructionin bread-winning which Nietzsche admits to be necessary for the majority; but in no case is an attempt made to pick out a few higher minds and train them for culture.Page 8
FIRST LECTURE.Page 19
And even this number of really cultured people would not be possible if a prodigious multitude, from reasons opposed to their nature and only led on by an alluring delusion, did not devote themselves to education.Page 28
, _cum tÃ¦dio in infinitum_.Page 29
But this is precisely where culture begins--namely, in understanding how to treat the quick as something vital, and it is here too that the mission of the cultured teacher begins: in suppressing the urgent claims of 'historical interests' wherever it is above all necessary to _do_ properly and not merely to _know_ properly.Page 31
Here everybody without exception is regarded as gifted for literature and considered as capable of holding opinions concerning the most important questions and people, whereas the one aim which proper education should most zealously strive to achieve would be the suppression of all ridiculous claims to independent judgment, and the inculcation upon young men of obedience to the sceptre of genius.Page 33
"If we compare all three of these would-be aims of the public school with the actual facts to be observed in the present method of teaching German, we see immediately what they really amount to in practice,--that is to say, only to subterfuges for use in the fight and struggle for existence and, often enough, mere means wherewith to bewilder an opponent.Page 40
Our solitary thinkers were perturbed by two facts: by clearly perceiving on the one hand that what might rightly be called "classical education" was now only a far-off ideal, a castle in the air, which could not possibly be built as a reality on the foundations of our present educational system, and that, on the other hand, what was now, with customary and unopposed euphemism, pointed to as "classical education" could only claim the value of a pretentious illusion, the best effect of which was that the expression "classical education" still lived on and had not yet lost its pathetic sound.Page 41
yet ripe for a higher culture, a culture founded upon that of the ancients: the neglected state of linguistic instruction; the forcing of students into learned historical paths, instead of giving them a practical training; the connection of certain practices, encouraged in the public schools, with the objectionable spirit of our journalistic publicity--all these easily perceptible phenomena of the teaching of German led to the painful certainty that the most beneficial of those forces which have come down to us from classical antiquity are not yet known in our public schools: forces which would train students for the struggle against the barbarism of the present age, and which will perhaps once more transform the public schools into the arsenals and workshops of this struggle.Page 48
And such a usefully employed philologist would now fain be a teacher! He now undertakes to teach the youth of the public schools something about the ancient writers, although he himself has read them without any particular impression, much less with insight! What a dilemma! Antiquity has said nothing to him, consequently he has nothing to say about antiquity.Page 51
For this very reason the profound Greek had for the State that strong feeling of admiration and thankfulness which is so distasteful to modern men; because he clearly recognised not only that without such State protection.Page 59
What with the dog and the men there was a scramble that lasted a few minutes, until my friend began to call out loudly, parodying the philosopher's own words: "In the name of all culture and pseudo-culture, what does the silly dog want with us? Hence, you confounded dog; you uninitiated, never to be initiated; hasten away from us, silent and ashamed!" After this outburst matters were cleared up to some extent, at any rate so far as they could be cleared up in the darkness of the wood.Page 75
"Happy times, when youths are clever and cultured enough to teach themselves how to walk! Unsurpassable public schools, which succeed in implanting independence in the place of the dependence, discipline, subordination, and obedience implanted by former generations that thought it their duty to drive away all the bumptiousness of independence! Do you clearly see, my good friends, why I, from the standpoint of culture, regard the present type of university as a mere appendage to the public school? The culture instilled by the public school passes through the gates of the university as something ready and entire, and with its own particular claims:.Page 77
"In what relationship these universities stand to _art_ cannot be acknowledged without shame: in none at all.Page 79
Then he becomes tired, lazy, afraid of work, fearful of everything great; and hating himself.Page 84
" [From a few MS.Page 88
When, however, even the friends of antiquity, possessed of such doubts and hesitations, point to our present classical philology as something questionable, what influence may we not ascribe to the outbursts of the "realists" and the claptrap of the heroes of the passing hour? To answer the latter on this occasion, especially when we consider the nature of the present assembly, would be highly injudicious; at any rate, if I do not wish to meet with the fate of that sophist who, when in Sparta, publicly undertook to praise and defend Herakles, when he was interrupted with the query: "But who then has found fault with him?" I cannot help thinking, however, that some of these scruples are still sounding in the ears of not a few in this gathering; for they may still be frequently heard from the lips of noble and artistically gifted men--as even an upright philologist must feel them, and feel them most painfully, at moments when his spirits are downcast.Page 89
When historical criticism has confidently seized upon this method of evaporating apparently concrete personalities, it is permissible to point to the first experiment as an important event in the history of sciences, without considering whether it was successful in this instance or not.Page 95
For the best way for these mechanicians to grasp individual characteristics is by perceiving deviations from the genius of the people; the aberrations and hidden allusions: and the fewer discrepancies to be found in a poem the fainter will be the traces of the individual poet who composed it.Page 97
The design of an epic such as the _Iliad_ is not an entire _whole_, not an organism; but a number of pieces strung together, a collection of reflections arranged in accordance with Ã¦sthetic rules.