Ainsi Parlait Zarathoustra

By Friedrich Nietzsche

Page 237

_enseignée_ en premier lieu.

La hiérachie, appliquée en un système de gouvernement de la terre: les
maîtres de la terre, en fin de compte, une nouvelle caste dominante.
De cette caste naît, de ci de là, un dieu tout à fait épicuréen, le
Surhumain, le transfigurateur de l'existence.

La conception surhumaine du monde. Dionysos. Revenir, avec amour, de
ce grand _éloignement_, vers le plus petit et le plus humble, -
Zarathoustra _bénissant_ tous les événements de sa vie et mourant en
bénissant.


82.


_Nous devons cesser d'être des hommes qui prient, pour devenir des
hommes qui bénissent!_





NOTES


L'idée de Zarathoustra remonte chez Nietzsche aux premières années de
son séjour à Bâle. On en retrouve des indices dans les notes datant de
1871 et 1872. Mais, pour la conception fondamentale de l'oeuvre,
Nietzsche lui-même indique l'époque d'une villégiature dans l'Engadine
en août 1881, où lui vint, pendant une marche à travers la forêt, au
bord du lac de Silvaplana, comme "un premier éclair de la pensée de
Zarathoustra", l'idée de l'éternel retour. Il en prit note le même
jour en ajoutant la remarque: "Au commencement du mois d'août 1881 à
Sils Maria, 6000 pieds au-dessus du niveau de la mer et bien plus haut
encore au-dessus de toutes les choses humaines" (Note conservée).
Depuis ce moment, cette idée ce développa en lui: ses carnets de notes
es ses manuscrits des années 1881 et 1882 en portent de nombreuses
traces et _Le gai Savoir_ qu'il rédigeait alors contient "cent indices
de l'approche de quelque chose d'incomparable". Le volume mentionnait
même déjà (dans l'aphorisme 341) la pensée de l'éternel retour, et, à
la fin de sa quatrième partie (dans l'aphorisme 342, qui, dans la
première édition, terminait l'ouvrage), "faisait luire, comme le dit
Nietzsche lui-même, la beauté des premières paroles de Zarathoustra".

La _première partie_ fut écrite dans "la baie riante et silencieuse" de
Rapallo près de Gênes, où Nietzsche passa les mois de janvier et
février 1883. "Le matin je suis monté par la superbe route de Zoagli
en me dirigeant vers le sud, le long d'une forêt de pins; je voyais se
dérouler devant moi la mer qui s'étendait jusqu'à l'horizon;
l'après-midi je fis le tour de toute la baie depuis Santa Margherita
jusque derrière Porto-fino. C'est sur ces deux chemins que m'est venue
l'idée de toute la première partie de _Zarathoustra_, avant tout
Zarathoustra lui-même, considère comme type; mieux encore, il est venu
sur moi" (jeu de mot sur _er fiel mir ein_ et _er überfiel mich_).
Nietzsche a plusieurs fois certifié n'avoir jamais mis plus de dix
jours à chacune

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Page 140
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