Ainsi Parlait Zarathoustra

By Friedrich Nietzsche

Page 237

_enseignée_ en premier lieu.

La hiérachie, appliquée en un système de gouvernement de la terre: les
maîtres de la terre, en fin de compte, une nouvelle caste dominante.
De cette caste naît, de ci de là, un dieu tout à fait épicuréen, le
Surhumain, le transfigurateur de l'existence.

La conception surhumaine du monde. Dionysos. Revenir, avec amour, de
ce grand _éloignement_, vers le plus petit et le plus humble, -
Zarathoustra _bénissant_ tous les événements de sa vie et mourant en


_Nous devons cesser d'être des hommes qui prient, pour devenir des
hommes qui bénissent!_


L'idée de Zarathoustra remonte chez Nietzsche aux premières années de
son séjour à Bâle. On en retrouve des indices dans les notes datant de
1871 et 1872. Mais, pour la conception fondamentale de l'oeuvre,
Nietzsche lui-même indique l'époque d'une villégiature dans l'Engadine
en août 1881, où lui vint, pendant une marche à travers la forêt, au
bord du lac de Silvaplana, comme "un premier éclair de la pensée de
Zarathoustra", l'idée de l'éternel retour. Il en prit note le même
jour en ajoutant la remarque: "Au commencement du mois d'août 1881 à
Sils Maria, 6000 pieds au-dessus du niveau de la mer et bien plus haut
encore au-dessus de toutes les choses humaines" (Note conservée).
Depuis ce moment, cette idée ce développa en lui: ses carnets de notes
es ses manuscrits des années 1881 et 1882 en portent de nombreuses
traces et _Le gai Savoir_ qu'il rédigeait alors contient "cent indices
de l'approche de quelque chose d'incomparable". Le volume mentionnait
même déjà (dans l'aphorisme 341) la pensée de l'éternel retour, et, à
la fin de sa quatrième partie (dans l'aphorisme 342, qui, dans la
première édition, terminait l'ouvrage), "faisait luire, comme le dit
Nietzsche lui-même, la beauté des premières paroles de Zarathoustra".

La _première partie_ fut écrite dans "la baie riante et silencieuse" de
Rapallo près de Gênes, où Nietzsche passa les mois de janvier et
février 1883. "Le matin je suis monté par la superbe route de Zoagli
en me dirigeant vers le sud, le long d'une forêt de pins; je voyais se
dérouler devant moi la mer qui s'étendait jusqu'à l'horizon;
l'après-midi je fis le tour de toute la baie depuis Santa Margherita
jusque derrière Porto-fino. C'est sur ces deux chemins que m'est venue
l'idée de toute la première partie de _Zarathoustra_, avant tout
Zarathoustra lui-même, considère comme type; mieux encore, il est venu
sur moi" (jeu de mot sur _er fiel mir ein_ et _er überfiel mich_).
Nietzsche a plusieurs fois certifié n'avoir jamais mis plus de dix
jours à chacune

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Text Comparison with Thoughts out of Season, Part I David Strauss, the Confessor and the Writer - Richard Wagner in Bayreuth.

Page 1
He should rather begin with the little pamphlet on Education, the _Thoughts out of Season, Beyond Good and Evil_, or the _Genealogy of Morals_.
Page 2
I know that the current opinion is to the contrary, and that your country is constantly accused, even by yourselves, of its insularity; but I, for my part, have found an almost feminine receptivity amongst you in my endeavour to bring you into contact with some ideas of my native country--a receptivity which, however, has also this in common with that of the female mind, that evidently nothing sticks deeply, but is quickly wiped out by what any other lecturer, or writer, or politician has to tell you.
Page 3
drink tea with them, discuss with them, and ask them to contribute to their newspapers! To get to the root of the matter: in spite of many encouraging signs, remarks and criticisms, adverse or benevolent, I do not think I have been very successful in my crusade for that European thought which began with Goethe and has found so fine a development in Nietzsche.
Page 15
Wagner would often declare that the beautiful music in the third act of Siegfried was to be ascribed to Nietzsche's influence over him; he also adopted the young man's terminology in art matters, and the concepts implied by the words "Dionysian" and "Apollonian" were borrowed by him from his friend's discourses.
Page 18
Those writers, therefore, command a more ready attention who, regarding this public opinion as final, proceed to vie with each other in their jubilant praise of the war, and of the powerful influences it has brought to bear upon morality, culture, and art.
Page 20
In this sphere, not only happiness but ecstasy reigns supreme.
Page 29
He lacked the weapon humour; he could not grant that one may be a Philistine and still be no barbarian.
Page 35
Let us, however, avail ourselves of the fleeting moments during which we remain in those little rooms; there is just sufficient time to get a glimpse of the apotheosis of the Philistine--that is to say, the Philistine whose stains have been removed and wiped away, and who is now an absolutely pure sample of his type.
Page 45
Page 46
As a matter of fact, our Philistine captain is brave, even audacious, in words; particularly when he hopes by such bravery to delight his noble colleagues--the "We," as he calls them.
Page 48
But where does this imperative hail from? How can it be intuitive in man, seeing that, according to Darwin, man is indeed a creature of nature, and that his ascent to his present stage of development has been conditioned by quite different laws--by the very fact that he was continually forgetting that others were constituted like him and shared the same rights with him; by the very fact that he regarded himself as the stronger, and thus brought about the gradual suppression of weaker types.
Page 58
If he overstepped these limits, as Schopenhauer does in almost every sentence, he would then forfeit his position at the head of the Philistines, and everybody would flee from him as precipitately as they are now following in his wake.
Page 59
The house, as a whole, is still uninhabitable and gloomy, its walls are bare, and the wind blows in through the open windows.
Page 73
If only this dulness were of a severely logical order! but simplicity and austerity in thought are precisely what these weaklings have lost, and in their hands even our language has become illogically tangled.
Page 75
For he who has sinned against the German language has desecrated the mystery of all our Germanity.
Page 76
This reciprocity between an act and its reception is always taken into account when anything great or small is to be accomplished; and he who would give anything away must see to it that he find recipients who will do justice to the meaning of his gift.
Page 104
Should it happen to go astray, it but returns from its wanderings and exile loaded with the most precious spoil; should it chance to slumber, "it does but recoup its strength.
Page 116
And, as he also turned upon the world the eyes of one reconciled, he was more filled with rage and disgust than with sorrow, and more prone to renounce the love of power than to shrink.
Page 120
His appearance in the history of art resembles nothing so much as a volcanic eruption of the united artistic faculties of Nature herself, after mankind had grown to regard the practice of a special art as a necessary rule.
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